⒈ Stanhope Journeys End

Wednesday, July 14, 2021 5:02:21 PM

Stanhope Journeys End



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Stanhope - Journey's End monologue

He instructs Richard Alpert to speak with a time-traveling John and tell him that he must bring everyone back to the island. After this, he goes to speak with Jacob. The season finale reveals that John Locke is still dead and another entity has taken over his form to manipulate Ben into killing Jacob. In , Juliet detonates the fission core taken from the hydrogen bomb. Season 6, the final season, follows two timelines.

In the first timeline, the survivors are sent to the present day, as the death of Jacob allows his brother, the Man in Black , the human alter-ego of the Smoke Monster , to take over the island. Having assumed the form of John Locke, the Smoke Monster seeks to escape the island and forces a final war between the forces of good and evil. The second timeline, called the "flash-sideways" narrative, follows the lives of the main characters in a setting where Oceanic never crashed, though additional changes are revealed as other characters are shown living completely different lives than they did.

In the final episodes, a flashback to the distant past shows the origins of the island's power and of the conflict between Jacob and the Man in Black, who are revealed to be twin brothers, with Jacob desperate to keep his brother from leaving the island after he is transmogrified by the power of the island and becomes the Smoke Monster. In this season, Jacob's machinations are revealed: everyone was pushed by fate and his manipulation to be on the Oceanic flight as many of the members of the flight were deemed "candidates" by Jacob to be the new protector of the island after his passing.

The Man in Black's mission since the beginning of the series: kill all of the candidates, thereby allowing him to leave the island once and for all. The ghost of Jacob appears to the last-of-the-surviving candidates, and Jack is appointed as the new protector. Jack catches up with The Man In Black, who says that he wants to go to the "heart of the island" to turn it off and, therefore, finally leave the island.

They reach the place, but after doing this, The Man In Black becomes mortal. Hurley , one of the survivors, becomes the new caretaker of the island. Several of the survivors die in the conflict or stay on the island, and the remaining escape in the Ajira Plane once and for all. Jack returns to the "heart of the island" and turns it on again, saving it. Hurley, as the new protector, asks Ben to help him in his new job, which he agrees to do.

Having saved the island, Jack dies peacefully in the same place in which he woke up when he arrived on the island. The series finale reveals that the flash-sideways timeline is actually a form of limbo in the afterlife, where some of the survivors and other characters from the island are reunited after death. In the last scene, the survivors are all reunited in a church where they "move on" together. Episodes of Lost include a number of mysterious elements ascribed to science fiction or supernatural phenomena. The creators of the series refer to these elements as composing the mythology of the series, and they formed the basis of fan speculation. At the heart of the series is a complex and cryptic storyline, which spawned numerous questions and discussions among viewers.

Theories mainly concerned the nature of the island, the origins of the "Monster" and the "Others", the meaning of the numbers, and the reasons for both the crash and the survival of some passengers. Lindelof rejected speculation that spaceships or aliens influenced the events on the island or that everything seen was a fictional reality taking place in someone's mind. Carlton Cuse dismissed the theory that the island was a reality TV show and the castaways unwitting housemates, [15] and Lindelof many times denied the theory that the "Monster" was a nanobot cloud similar to the one featured in Michael Crichton 's novel Prey which happened to share the protagonist's name, Jack. There are several recurring elements and motifs on Lost , which generally have no direct effect on the story itself but expand the show's literary and philosophical subtext.

These elements include frequent appearances of black and white, which reflect the dualism within characters and situations; as well as rebellion in almost all characters, especially Kate; [17] dysfunctional family situations especially ones that revolve around the fathers of many characters , as portrayed in the lives of nearly all the main characters; [18] apocalyptic references, including Desmond's pushing the button to forestall the end of the world; coincidence versus fate, revealed most apparently through the juxtaposition of the characters Locke and Mr. Eko; conflict between science and faith, embodied by the leadership tug-of-war between Jack and Locke and their stark disagreements on subjects such as the hatch, the button, and leaving the island; [19] the struggle between good and evil, shown by the relationship between Jacob and the Man in Black, several times by Locke using symbols such as his backgammon set, also the white and black rocks that the Man in Black referred to as an "inside joke"; and references to numerous works of literature, including mentions and discussions of particular novels.

Of the people on board Oceanic Flight , [22] there are 70 initial survivors as well as one dog spread across the three sections of the plane crash. Lost was planned as a multicultural show with an international cast. The initial season had 14 regular speaking roles that received star billing. Matthew Fox played the protagonist, a troubled surgeon named Jack Shephard. Evangeline Lilly portrayed fugitive Kate Austen. Jorge Garcia played Hugo "Hurley" Reyes , an unlucky lottery winner. Josh Holloway played a con man, James "Sawyer" Ford. Ian Somerhalder played Boone Carlyle , chief operating officer of his mother's wedding business.

Maggie Grace played his stepsister Shannon Rutherford , a former dance teacher. Terry O'Quinn played the mysterious John Locke. Emilie de Ravin played a young Australian mother-to-be, Claire Littleton. Dominic Monaghan played English ex-rock star drug addict Charlie Pace. During the first two seasons, some characters were written out, while new characters with new stories were added. Shannon's departure eight episodes into season two made way for newcomers Mr. Ana Lucia and Libby were written out of the series toward the end of season two after being shot by Michael, who then left the island along with his son.

In season three, two actors were promoted from recurring to starring roles: Henry Ian Cusick as former Scottish soldier Desmond Hume ; and Michael Emerson as the manipulative leader of the Others, Ben Linus. Several characters died in the season: Eko was killed off when Akinnuoye-Agbaje did not wish to continue on the show, [31] [32] Nikki and Paulo were buried alive mid-season after poor fan response, [33] and in the third-season finale, Charlie dies a hero. In season four, Harold Perrineau rejoined the main cast to reprise the role of Michael, now suicidal and on a desperate redemptive journey to atone for his previous crimes.

In season five, no new characters joined the main cast; however, several characters exited the show: Charlotte was written out early in the season in episode five, with Daniel being written out later in the antepenultimate episode. Season six saw several cast changes: Juliet was written out in the season premiere while three previous recurring characters were upgraded to starring status. Numerous supporting characters have been given expansive and recurring appearances in the progressive storyline.

Danielle Rousseau Mira Furlan —a French member of an earlier scientific expedition to the island, first encountered as a voice recording in the pilot episode—appears throughout the series. She is searching for her daughter, who later turns up in the form of Alex Rousseau Tania Raymonde. Alex has been kidnapped by Ben Linus and brought to the Others where she was raised.

Cindy Kimberley Joseph , an Oceanic flight attendant who first appeared in the pilot, survived the crash and, subsequently, became one of the Others. In the second season, married couple Rose Nadler L. Scott Caldwell and Bernard Nadler Sam Anderson , separated on opposite sides of the island she with the main characters, he with the tail section survivors , were featured in a flashback episode after being reunited. The second season also introduces Dr. Pierre Chang Francois Chau , a member of the mysterious Dharma Initiative who appears in the orientation films for its numerous stations located throughout the island.

Eloise Hawking Fionnula Flanagan , introduced in the third season, is Daniel Faraday's mother and also has connections with Desmond. The introduction of the Others featured Tom , a. Friendly M. Gainey , and Ethan Rom William Mapother , all of whom have been shown in both flashbacks and the ongoing story. Jack's father Christian Shephard John Terry has appeared in multiple flashbacks of various characters. In the third season, Naomi Dorrit Marsha Thomason , the team leader of a group hired by Widmore to find Ben Linus, parachutes onto the island. One member of her team includes the ruthless mercenary Martin Keamy Kevin Durand.

The mysterious black smoke cloud-like entity, known as " the Monster ", appeared in human form during season five and six as a middle-aged man dressed in black robes, who was played by Titus Welliver , and in season six, it appears in the form of John Locke played by O'Quinn in a dual role. His rival, Jacob , was played by Mark Pellegrino. Throughout its run, the executive producers of the series were Damon Lindelof , J. The series was conceived by Lloyd Braun , head of ABC at the time, while he was on vacation in Hawaii during and thought of a cross between the movie Cast Away and the popular reality show Survivor.

Unhappy with the eventual script by Lieber and a subsequent rewrite, in January , Braun contacted J. Lieber would later receive a story credit for the Lost pilot and, subsequently, shared the "created by" credit with Abrams and Lindelof, after a request for arbitration at the Writers Guild of America. Although initially hesitant, Abrams warmed to the idea on the condition that the series would have a supernatural angle to it and if he had a writing partner. You just had to walk around and explore these environments and gradually a story was told.

Abrams created the sound opening of the show and its title card being inspired by The Twilight Zone. The development of the show was constrained by tight deadlines, as it had been commissioned late in the season's development cycle. Despite the short schedule, the creative team remained flexible enough to modify or create characters to fit actors they wished to cast.

Along with fellow new series Desperate Housewives and Grey's Anatomy , Lost helped to reverse the flagging fortunes of ABC, [62] and its great success likely caused the network to ignore that the show almost immediately broke Lindelof and Abrams' promises to it regarding Lost ' s plots. Many of the first season roles were a result of the executive producers' liking of various actors. The main character Jack was originally going to die in the pilot, and the role was planned for Michael Keaton. However, ABC executives were adamant that Jack live.

Dominic Monaghan auditioned for the role of Sawyer, who at the time was supposed to be a slick suit-wearing city con man. The producers enjoyed Monaghan's performance and changed the character of Charlie, originally an over-the-hill former rock star, to fit him. Jorge Garcia also auditioned for Sawyer, and the part of Hurley was written for him. When Josh Holloway auditioned for Sawyer, the producers liked the edge he brought to the character he reportedly kicked a chair when he forgot his lines and got angry in the audition and his southern accent , so they changed Sawyer to fit Holloway's acting.

Yunjin Kim auditioned for Kate, but the producers wrote the character of Sun for her and the character of Jin, portrayed by Daniel Dae Kim, to be her husband. Sayid, played by Naveen Andrews, was also not in the original script. Locke and Michael were written with their actors in mind. Emilie de Ravin, who played Claire, was originally cast in what was supposed to be a recurring role. His role was extended to eight episodes because of his acting skills and eventually, for the whole of season three and later seasons. Lost was filmed on Panavision 35 mm cameras almost entirely on the Hawaiian island of Oahu given the easily accessible, wide diversity of filming locations. Later beach scenes take place in secluded spots of the famous North Shore.

Cave scenes in the first season were filmed on a sound stage built at a Xerox parts warehouse, which had been empty since an employee mass shooting took place there in Scenes set in Germany during the winter were filmed on Merchant St. Two scenes during season four were filmed in London because Alan Dale , who portrays Widmore, was at the time performing in the musical Spamalot and was unable to travel to Hawaii. During its six years of broadcasting, Lost developed an extensive collection of promotional tools ranging from the traditional promotions of the TV show made by the channel, to the creation of alternate reality games , such as the Lost Experience.

Lost features an orchestral score performed by the Hollywood Studio Symphony Orchestra and composed by Michael Giacchino , incorporating many recurring themes for subjects, such as events, locations, and characters. Giacchino achieved some of the sounds for the score using unusual instruments, such as striking suspended pieces of the plane's fuselage. A final soundtrack, featuring music from series finale, was released on October 11, The series uses pop culture songs sparingly, and has a mainly orchestral score consisting usually of divided strings, percussion, harp, and three trombones.

When it features pop songs, they often originate from a diegetic source. Examples include the various songs played on Hurley's portable CD player throughout the first season until its batteries died in the episode " In Translation ", which featured Damien Rice's "Delicate" or the use of the record player in the second season, which included Cass Elliot 's " Make Your Own Kind of Music " and Petula Clark 's " Downtown " in the second and third-season premieres respectively. Two episodes show Charlie on a street corner playing guitar and singing the Oasis song " Wonderwall ".

The third season also used Three Dog Night 's " Shambala " on two occasions in the van. The only two pop songs that have ever been used without an on-screen source i. Lost has been described by numerous critics as being among the greatest television series of all time. The appeal narrowed as seasons progressed and the mythology became more complex, culminating in a still-debated finale that was deeply meaningful to some and dissatisfying poppycock to others. The first season received critical acclaim. USA Today said a "totally original, fabulously enjoyable lost-at-sea series, Lost had taken "an outlandish Saturday-serial setup and imbued it with real characters and honest emotions, without sacrificing any of the old-fashioned fun. The second season received favorable reviews, but it was noted that the season "stumbled with some storylines going nowhere and some characters underutilized.

Nearing the end of the second season, USA Today listed the most popular fan theories during Season 2—the island as a psychological experiment, that the hatch had electromagnetic properties, string theory of time, and that everyone on the island had developed a "collective consciousness" that allowed them to appear in each other's past. Suspense comes not from wondering what's going on but from wondering what happens next.

If you withhold answers, it becomes impossible to satisfy. The first block of episodes of the third season was criticized for raising too many mysteries [92] and not providing enough answers. Gainey, who played Tom. Reaction to two new characters, Nikki and Paulo, was generally negative, and Lindelof even acknowledged that the couple was "universally despised" by fans. The fourth season opened to praise not seen since the first season.

Metacritic gave season four a weighted average of 87 based on the impressions of a select twelve critical reviews, [] earning the second highest Metascore in the — television season after the fifth and final season of HBO 's The Wire. Tim Goodman of the San Francisco Chronicle said that the Season 4 episodes were "roller coasters of fast action and revelation" and that series was "back on track. The critic also said that the show was "in the dark business of exploring just how futile the modern search for peace, knowledge, recovery or profit really is.

The fifth season once again received mostly positive critical reception. Season 5 was given a weighted average of 78 out of by Metacritic. Variety said that "The ABC series remains one of primetime's most uncompromising efforts, and this year's latest wrinkle on flashbacks, flash-forwards and island-disappearing flashes of light does nothing to alter that perception. How can these characters have any concrete agenda or strategic approach or philosophical perspective on anything when the rug is pulled out from under them by another Act of God every few seconds? All that remains is the reductively limned battle between fate and free will largely playing out, now, in Jack Shephard's belief that returning to the island is his Destiny.

Club said of the fifth-season finale, "Me? I found the ending frustrating, but in a good way. This finale was entertaining as all get-out to me, and despite the occasional groaner moment, I think this may be Lost's most purposeful, surprising finale. Season six opened to much hype and curiosity. The A. Club asked, "I'm guessing that one of the biggest fears of Lost fans as we ride out this sixth and final season—bumps and all—is that we're going to come to the end and find a big nothing in return for all we've invested in these characters.

We don't just need answers, we need justifications. Why has whatever happened, happened? Who has called this particular meeting to order, and does it really matter who showed up? Linus ", " Ab Aeterno ", " Happily Ever After ", and " The Candidate " opened to highly positive critical reception while the third-to-last episode " Across the Sea " was the episode with the most negative reception. Online described the show as "lightning in a bottle" and picked it as "Top TV Drama of The series finale opened to highly polarized critical and fan reception. According to the web site Metacritic , "The End" received "generally favorable reviews" with a Metascore—a weighted average based on the impressions of 31 critical reviews—of 74 out of He described it as "one of the most enthralling, entertaining and satisfying conclusions I could have hoped for.

Petersburg Times also gave the finale a perfect score, stating "Sunday's show was an emotional, funny, expertly measured reminder of what Lost has really centered on since its first moments on the prime time TV landscape: faith, hope, romance and the power of redemption through belief in the best of what moves mankind. The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph both reported that "The End" had received negative reviews and disappointed its viewers. Alan Sepinwall of Star-Ledger was less enthusiastic of the finale, stating "I'm still wrestling with my feelings about 'The End' I thought most of it worked like gangbusters.

But as someone who did spend at least part of the last six years dwelling on the questions that were unanswered—be they little things like the outrigger shootout or why The Others left Dharma in charge of the Swan station after the purge, or bigger ones like Walt—I can't say I found 'The End' wholly satisfying, either as closure for this season or the series. There are narrative dead ends in every season of 'Lost,' but it felt like season six had more than usual. Rendered insignificant Once Jack stepped into the church it looked like he was walking into a Hollywood wrap party without food or music—just a bunch of actors grinning idiotically for 10 minutes and hugging one another. The pilot episode had Lost represents the network's best start for a drama with to year-olds since Once and Again in , and in total viewers since Murder One in For its first season, Lost averaged 16 million viewers, ranking 14th in viewership among prime-time shows and 15th among the eighteen to forty-nine-year-old demographic.

However, it improved its rating with to year-olds, ranking eighth. The seventh episode of the season, back from a three-month hiatus, saw a drop to Over the course of the spring season, ratings would plunge to as low as 11 million viewers before recovering to near 14 million for the season finale. The ratings drop was partially explained when Nielsen released DVR ratings, showing Lost as the most recorded series on television. However, despite overall ratings losses, Lost still won its hour in the crucial 18—49 demographic and put out the highest 18—49 numbers in the p.

The fourth-season premiere saw an increase from the previous episode to Abrams was awarded an Emmy in September for his work as the director of "Pilot. It won only one Emmy Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing out of its twelve nominations for a series total of 11 wins and 55 nominations in its six-year run. In , Kristin dos Santos of E! Online ranked Lost the best TV series of the past 20 years. As a mainstream cult television show, Lost has generated a dedicated and thriving international fan community.

Lost fans, sometimes dubbed Lostaways [] or Losties , [] have gathered at Comic-Con International and conventions organized by ABC [] [] but have also been active in developing many fan websites, including Lostpedia and forums dedicated to the program and its related incarnations. Because of the show's elaborate mythology, its fansites have focused on speculation and theorizing about the island's mysteries, as well as on more typical fan activities, such as producing fan fiction and videos, compiling episode transcripts, shipping characters, and collecting memorabilia.

Anticipating fan interest and trying to keep its audience engrossed, ABC embarked on various cross-media endeavors, often using new media. Fans of Lost have been able to explore ABC-produced tie-in websites, tie-in novels, an official forum sponsored by the creative team behind Lost "The Fuselage" , " mobisodes ", podcasts by the producers, an official magazine, and an alternate reality game ARG " The Lost Experience. Due to the show's popularity, references to it and elements from its story have appeared in parody and popular culture usage. Weezer named their eighth studio album Hurley after the character, with a photo of actor Jorge Garcia on the cover. After the episode " Numbers " aired on March 2, , numerous people used the eponymous figures 4, 8, 15, 16, 23, and 42 as lottery entries.

According to the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review , within three days, the numbers were tried over times by local players. The No. Lost has been cited as a key influence on several of its contemporaries. Damon Lindelof was involved in the early stages of the creative process of Heroes , as he was friends with Heroes creator Tim Kring. Even though their series started after Lost ended, they conceived it in To them, Lost concerned itself with redemption, while Once Upon a Time is about "hope". In addition to traditional terrestrial and satellite television , Lost is available from various online services, including Amazon Prime Video [] and Hulu. In April , Disney announced that Lost would be available for free online in streaming format, with advertising, on ABC's website, as part of a two-month experiment of future distribution strategies.

The trial, which ran from May to June , caused a stir among network affiliates who were afraid of being cut out of advertising revenue. The streaming of Lost episodes direct from ABC's website was only available to viewers in the United States due to international licensing agreements. The Nielsen Company reported that 1. The first season of Lost was released under the title Lost: The Complete First Season as a widescreen seven-disc Region 1 DVD box set on September 6, , two weeks before the premiere of the second season.

It was distributed by Buena Vista Home Entertainment. In addition to all the episodes that had been aired, it included several DVD extras, such as episode commentaries, behind-the-scenes footage and making-of features as well as deleted scenes , deleted flashback scenarios, and a blooper reel. The same set was released on November 30, , in Region 4. The first two seasons were released separately on Blu-ray Disc on June 16, The sets include several DVD extras, including behind the scenes footage, deleted scenes, and a " Lost Connections" chart, which shows how all of the characters on the island are inter-connected.

The third season was released in Region 2 solely on DVD on October 22, , though this time, only as a complete set, unlike previous seasons. The first three seasons of Lost have sold successfully on DVD. The season 1 box set entered the DVD sales chart at number two in September , [] and the season 2 box set entered the DVD sales chart at the number one position in its first week of release in September , believed to be the second TV-DVD ever to enter the chart at the top spot.

Both the season 6 box set and the complete series collection contained a minute epilogue-like bonus feature called " The New Man in Charge ". The characters and setting of Lost have appeared in several official tie-ins outside of the television broadcast, including in print, on the Internet, and in short videos for mobile phones. Several unofficial books relating to the show have also been published.

What Can Be Found in Lost? ISBN by John Ankerberg and Dillon Burrough, published by Harvest House is the first book dedicated to an investigation of the spiritual themes of the series from a Christian perspective. Wood, [] published by the Garett County Press, is the first work of cultural criticism based on the series. The book explores the show's strange engagement with the contemporary experiences of war, mis information, and terrorism and argues that the audience functions as a character in the narrative. The author also writes a blog column [] during the second part of the third season for Powell's Books.

Each post discusses the previous episode's literary, historical, philosophical, and narrative connections. The show's networks and producers have made extensive use of the Internet in expanding the background of the story. For example, during the first season, a fictional diary by an unseen survivor called "Janelle Granger" was presented on the ABC web site for the series. Likewise, a tie-in website about the fictional Oceanic Airlines appeared during the first season, which included several Easter eggs and clues about the show. Another tie-in website was launched after the airing of " Orientation " about the Hanso Foundation. In the UK, the interactive back-stories of several characters were included in "Lost Untold", a section of Channel 4 's Lost website.

Similarly, beginning in November , ABC produced an official podcast , hosted by series writers and executive producers Damon Lindelof and Carlton Cuse. The podcast typically features a discussion about the weekly episode, interviews with cast members, and questions from viewers. The game presents a five-phase parallel storyline, primarily involving the Hanso Foundation. Short mini-episodes " mobisodes " called the Lost Video Diaries were originally scheduled for viewing by Verizon Wireless subscribers via its V-Cast system but were delayed by contract disputes. In addition to tie-in novels, several other products based on the series, such as toys and games, have been licensed for release.

A video game, Lost: Via Domus , was released to average reviews, developed by Ubisoft , for game consoles and home computers, [] while Gameloft developed a Lost game for mobile phones and iPods. Furthermore, ABC sold a myriad of Lost merchandise in their online store, including clothing, jewelry, and other collectibles. The book compiled information from the TV show producers "writers bible", listing nearly every character, chronological event, location, and plot detail of the series, filling in the gaps for die-hard fans. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 October Not to be confused with Lost game show. American television series — Adventure Mystery Serial drama Science fiction Supernatural fiction.

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Remember he was sentenced in and he actually was on this hulk between and before embarking on the convict ship, the Guildford, on the 29th March So he had about 18 or 19 months on the hulk. And he also escaped the term child convict. A child convict or child transportee was a child whose sentence began before the age of But by the time he set sail for Australia he was actually And as I say they were particularly overcrowded leading up to when the first fleet set sail. And of course there was this period between and where there was lots of discussion about where the next penal colony should be. This is HO 9 by the way. This is an index.

So the records of transportation start from this point. This record is from a series HO 10 which is a Home Office series recording settlers and convicts to New South Wales and Tasmania from right through to And this is part of the first fleet. The Sirius reached Botany Bay, we think, on the 20th January And in total there were a fleet of 11 ships that left Portsmouth on the 13th May So it took than about eight months for them to arrive, all 11, between the 18th and 20th And they were guarded by nearly marines and officers. And in total there were about 1, people of which only 24 did not survive the eight month journey, which was something like 0. And this was despite the extreme heat and associated diseases. But the first fleet was incredibly successful.

One of the more famous or popular series of records we have are lists of convicts transported. And you can also search these using the library in Victoria. So, what does it do? It tends to give you the names of the convicts who were being transported, where they were convicted and when they were convicted the conviction dates. The state library of Queensland actually has its own website where you can freely search for details and transcriptions of anyone who appears and all of these records going from through to the s.

And John Jobson can be found on these. Remember John Jobson set sail on the Guildford in having spent two years in the prison hulk called the Leviathan. Remember he was found guilty in Warwickshire Assizes of stealing two pistols. Well he set aboard on the Guildford on the 7th April , bound for Port Jackson under the captaincy of Magnus Johnson. And it was the fifth voyage of the Guildford to New South Wales and it stopped just the once on the way. And the passage lasted 99 days which was incredibly quick and it was one of the fastest made by convict ship. We can see John Jobson I think on the next page, second from the bottom.

So it was in their interest to make sure they were well fed and looked after as best as they could be. So who actually transported? You can summarise them into four categories. There were rural convicts, essentially those from a farming background, political prisoners or exiles such as 19th century riotists, significantly the swing rioters of and those involved in the Chartists Movements of the s and s. And between 15, and 20, children were believed to have been transported between and Now John Jobson, as we heard before, was a rural convict, he was from a farming background in rural Warwickshire.

Western Australia was the destination for the vast majority of Irish convicts. And most Irish convicts were rural. Their crimes would range from disturbances to stealing cattle. And prisoners from rural areas fell foul of the Game Laws which made the killing and poaching of game a serious offence and poachers were often seen as heroes, especially between and when tensions between the landowners and ordinary people ran very high. And the availability of transportation led to a significant reduction on the number of executions in Britain. The numbers of people sent to Australia increased between and and the peak years were seen to be the s when over 43, men and 7, women were transported.

And this is well over three quarters of all those convicts who were transported after This is just a cartoon of which offers a satirical depiction of convicts leaving their loved ones before embarking for Botany Bay. And whatever the reason for transportation there was always the associated trauma. The domestic impact of transportation on families and communities was felt in villages and towns throughout the country. And there are thousands and thousands of letters in The National Archives addressed to The Home Secretary appealing to him to allow wives and children of convicts to go to Australia with them on a free passage.

And most of these letters were unanswered or left unheard. This particular example from a prisoner sentenced to transportation for life begs that his wife be allowed to accompany him. And as I say such letters would have probably gone unanswered. And then the rowing boat over to New South Wales. And this dates between and These convicts who gained their ticket of leave, as I said, could then invite families to join them in Australia.

And this is a register of such passengers being agreed and being carried out by The Colonial Office. But nevertheless obviously some families were reunited as we can see in this particular document here. OK, I talked about the groups of people who were transported, we talked about rural transportees. And this is a poster offering the reward for information about the Swing letters.

Swing riots were a response to low wages and poor conditions particularly in the South West and East of England in And tactics such as rick-burning and cattle maiming provoked a ferocious response from the authorities. And they were really convicted for pretesting against the loss of their livelihoods caused by changes in rural work such as the introduction of new agricultural machinery. And the Swing riots of to were an agricultural phenomenon. There were over a thousand separate incidents of machine breaking, arson attacks and other disturbances in counties across the South, the West and the East of England. The riots were as a result of the decline in prices of agricultural produce, lower wages and the introduction of the thresher machine and the influx of cheap Irish labour.

And as a consequence 2, were arrested, of which 19 were executed and over transported, of which were transported on the convict ship the Eleanor which sailed from Portsmouth to New South Wales in and And round about the same time you had the Chartist movement. So this is from the series HO And Chartists were the largest working class political movement of the 19th century and their public meetings alarmed the authorities. Many Chartists were transported for their activities. Essentially Chartists demanded the radical realignment of political power including a secret ballot and an extension of the vote to all males. And there are three core years of protests, , and In an armed Chartist uprising took place in Newport resulting in the deaths of 22 people.

The intention was to seize the town and then secure the release of Henry Vincent who was a leading Chartist speaker but the plan failed and three were sentenced to death, their sentences commuted to transportation after large scale protests. And the riots in Newport were typical of riots in a number of places including Birmingham. And of course women were transported as well. As I said before we think around about 26, women were transported to Australia. And this is an illustration of female prisoners in Newgate prison. And most would have come from the London and Middlesex hotspots of soaring urban crime. As I said, women would not be awaiting transportation on prison hulks.

It was also known as the floating brothel. The majority were convicted for larceny or crimes against poverty. And the women would bring useful skills from generally low paid employment, ranging from servants and housemaids to cooks, weavers, nurses, boot makers and jewellers. And most were often young, in the 21 to 25 year range of childbearing age and ideal to contribute to a future labour force. And the final category that I include on the slide before was children.

This is a drawing of street urchins practising their skills in London from the Dickens novel Oliver Twist. And this is from the famous cartoonist Cruikshank. Child transportation existed as early as the first fleet, when a 13 year old girl called Elizabeth Hayward was transported for stealing a linen dress. And large numbers of child convicts were placed on a child hulk especially designed to accommodate children in the s and s. And over were brought on one journey by the convict ship the Elphinstone in , and children, as I say, were classed as being anyone under the age of But very few child convicts were under the age of ten.

So why were children transported? Well, Victorian society did not look kindly down on children, children were abandoned in the growing industrial age, there was a surplus of labour for jobs that were there and there was high mortality rates for parents. This is a list of some of those children on board. As you can see on this particular page they range from 13 years old through to And a lot of the adults were kept at Port Arthur, but just around the coast, or very close by to Port Arthur, was the child colony known as Point Pure, which closed in , but it was surrounded by water and a large shark population.

And this was the whole of Port Arthur. Prisoners were virtually sealed off from the rest of the world. But Point Pure was part of that and it closed in having been a juvenile colony for boys. And the boys who were on the vessel you just saw before, the Elphinstone, were destined for Point Pure. They were situated just across from Port Arthur. It survived for 15 years and in that time admitted, as I said, around about boys. There were also barracks. But the biggest one was Point Pure. This is an interesting series of records.

And this guy called John Edwards is answering questions to show his family background and social conditions that ultimately led many boys into early delinquency and crime. So the voyage over. As I said, the voyage could be as short as 88 days. John Jobson was on a voyage that lasted 99 days but the record they think was 88 days, towards the end of the transportation in the mids. But they could last up to seven months and that was the period of time it would take to reach Australia, certainly in the s and s when transportation started. So what records do we have on the voyage over? There are records of convicts where they were keeping order so there were punishment books. There are medical records indicating how people sadly would die on board and there are records of particularly diseases such as scurvy.

So we can just look at some of these fairly quickly. And this is the medical journal of the convict ship called the Ocean, which sailed in In it the surgeon superintendent describes a case of attempted mutiny, because you would get mutiny on a lot of these journeys that lasted several months. And in addition to completing medical journals these men were expected to document unusual and untoward cases involving disciplinary measures.

This is the journal for the convict ship called the Guildford in As we know this is the ship that John Jobson was transported on. And it was from that each convict ship carried a naval surgeon. As we know John was transported for stealing two pistols and the Guildford surgeon was a Dr James Mitchell who recorded in his log details of all those who required his services. On the 7th July the log notes that John Jobson had reported to sick bay. Diagnosed with a serious face infection, he was put on a low diet and given a treatment involving an ammonia compound. After three days he was well enough to be discharged.

As I say, naval surgeons were also responsible for recording punishments, so here we have a Punishment Register or list for the various crimes and punishments which were meted out to offending convicts during the voyage.

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