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Carter has taught at Yale Law School since His areas of expertise include contracts, evidence, intellectual property, professional ethics, ethics in literature, law and the ethics of war, and law and religion. In addition to numerous scholarly articles published in journals like the Harvard Law Review and the Yale Law and Policy Review, Carter gained recognition beyond the academic world through his writings for popular audiences. Carter wrote a memoir and meditation on the role that affirmative action played in his own life, "Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby," which was published in He has since released seven other nonfiction works. His books have dealt with the intolerance of religious belief in public life "The Culture of Disbelief" , the federal judicial appointment process "The Confirmation Mess" , the loss of civility from our social and political life "Civility" , and the ethics of war "The Violence of Peace".
Ta-Nehisi Coates was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in After graduating from high school, Coates attended Howard University for several years, but left before taking a degree to pursue a career in journalism. He was appointed Martin Luther King, Jr. He joined The Atlantic in , and later became senior editor and wrote a regular column on their blog. He also became a frequent contributor to op-eds and more extended essays for the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Washington Monthly, and many other mainstream media outlets. Coates is best known for his memoir, "Between the World and Me.
It reflects on the many ways in which life for African Americans has and has not changed since those fraught times. In addition to the three books of literary nonfiction, Coates has also published comic books and video game texts. Most recently, he published a novel. Academic Website Personal Website. Patricia Hill Collins was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in She obtained her bachelor's degree in sociology in from Brandeis University and a master's degree in social sciences education in from Harvard University.
Collins taught in the public schools of the Roxbury section of Boston from Then, she was appointed director of the Africana Center at Tufts University, a post she held until In , she earned her Ph. Collins' published work has focused on the intersectionality of race, class, and gender. Her writing and analysis made her a pioneer in critical race theory, which assesses how society and culture impact the categorizations of race, law, and power. The book focuses on the social, psychological, and political issues surrounding the disempowerment of Black women, including perspectives of revolutionary Marxist and feminist theory drawing on the work of Angela Davis , fiction Alice Walker , and poetry Audre Lorde.
Collins' other works have broached public education "Another Kind of Public Education" and the role of intellectuals in articulating social and political possibilities "On Intellectual Activism". Collins also emphasizes the linguistic dimension of social constructions. From "On Intellectual Activism": "Challenging power structures from the inside, working the cracks within the system, however, requires learning to speak multiple languages of power convincingly. Collins served as the President of the American Sociological Association from and has received numerous grants, awards, honorary degrees, and board memberships. She regularly gives lectures and keynote addresses.
Academic Website. Crenshaw was born in Canton, Ohio, in and is best known as one of the founders of critical race theory. She received her bachelor's degree in government and Africana studies in from Cornell University. Crenshaw became world-famous in for creating the concept of intersectionality in a paper for the University of Chicago Law Forum. She explained that people belonging to two or more oppressed categories often encounter overlapping and independent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
Crenshaw's goal is to change that dynamic. Her work, which received international acclaim, even influenced the equality clause in the Constitution of South Africa in In addition to her teaching and writing, Crenshaw has been active in politics. For example, she was a member of the legal team representing Anita Hill during the Senate confirmation hearings on Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. Crenshaw is also the co-founder and executive director of the African American Policy Forum, a nonprofit think tank that focuses on scholarly research on race, gender inequality, and discrimination in public policy discourse in the media and government.
Angela Davis is a political activist, philosopher, academic, and author who was born in Birmingham, Alabama, in After spending a year at the Sorbonne in Paris, she earned her bachelor's degree magna cum laude in French Brandeis University in Following two years of graduate work at the University of Frankfurt, she entered the doctoral program in philosophy at the University of California, San Diego. Davis received her master's degree in philosophy from the University of California, San Diego, in She passed the qualifying exams for her Ph.
She began writing her dissertation under the supervision of Herbert Marcuse. Then, in , she was accused of being an accomplice in a violent takeover at the Marin County Courthouse in San Rafael, California, though she was found innocent. As a philosopher and critical theorist, Davis has consistently applied Marxist analysis to the oppression of people of color and women by imperialist-capitalist society. She has continued to be politically committed, frequently lending her support to those unjustly accused or condemned.
In more recent years, she has turned her attention to the injustice of what she calls the "prison-industrial complex. To this end, Davis co-founded the national grassroots prison-abolition organization Critical Resistance. Davis has authored, co-authored, or edited 10 books. She has lectured widely at universities around the world, covering philosophical topics and political issues of the day.
Davis holds several honorary doctorates and has been the subject of numerous films and academic studies by other authors. Gates is a literary critic, teacher, historian, filmmaker, and public intellectual who was born in Keyser, West Virginia, in Gates took his bachelor's degree summa cum laude in history in from Yale University. He obtained his Ph. Gates earned a reputation as a literary theorist with his treatise "The Signifying Monkey," which analyzes the interplay between texts of prominent African-American writers and the influences of historical and cultural contexts. Gates defends the right of white scholars to work within Africana studies disciplines. He also argues that the Black literary canon should not be theorized in isolation from European literature any more than European literature should be sealed off from African and African American influences.
Beginning with his memoir, "Colored People," Gates has attempted to bring his own experiences as a Black man in America to speak on a variety of issues. He has also brought genealogy to a broad audience through his books, lectures, and an award-winning television series, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross. Gates' writing, interviews, and television programs have made him one of the most recognizable faces of Africana studies in the country. In addition to receiving numerous awards, grants, and fellowships, he sits on the editorial boards of several dozen scholarly journals.
Joy DeGruy, born in , is a researcher, educator, and author. She is known worldwide for her research into the intersection of racism, trauma, violence, and American chattel slavery. She first earned her bachelor's degree in speech communication in , followed by master's degrees in social work and clinical psychology in and , respectively. She completed her Ph. In addition to being an academic, DeGruy has more than 30 years of experience as a social worker. She also discusses the functional and dysfunctional attitudes and behaviors that have persisted through multiple generations due to generational trauma.
DeGruy has published numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, as well as developed evidence-based models for working with children, youth, and adults of color and their communities. Professional Website. Annette Gordon-Reed, a historian and law professor, was born in Livingston, Texas, in In , she returned to Harvard with a joint appointment in history and law. Gordon-Reed is best known for her groundbreaking research into the Hemings family, who were slaves owned by President Thomas Jefferson and lived on his Virginia plantation. In many research articles and three best-selling books, she advanced new arguments that Jefferson's slave Sally Hemings was the mother of as many as six of his children. After initial skepticism by historians, Gordon-Reed's work on the complicated relationship between Jefferson and Hemings is now widely accepted by the academic historical community.
In addition to her work on Jefferson and the Hemingses, she has published widely on other topics of early American history, including a book on Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States. She also assisted the prominent civil rights activist Vernon Jordan in writing his memoir. Gordon-Reed is the recipient of several honorary degrees, as well as a Guggenheim Fellowship in and a MacArthur Fellowship in She received the National Humanities Medal — the nation's highest award in the humanities — in a ceremony at the White House. Angela P. Harris, a legal scholar, was born in She received her bachelor's degree in English in from the University of Michigan and her master's in sociology in from the University of Chicago.
She earned her juris doctorate in from the University of Chicago Law School. Returning to academia in , she joined the faculty of the University of California Berkeley School of Law. Her expertise included critical race theory, feminist legal theory, and criminal law. Harris — a former research affiliate with UC-Davis's Center for Poverty Research — is the author of several influential articles and essays in critical legal theory, feminist legal theory, and critical race theory. One of her more commonly known contributions was adding critical race theory to the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Harris has published articles in peer-reviewed journals — including Fordham Law Review, Stanford Law Review, and California Law Review — and authored, co-authored, and edited numerous books. Harris has also helped to organize or participate in many colloquia, seminars, and workshops on feminist legal theory and critical race theory. He was raised in Ethiopia but came to the United States for his higher education. Isaac received his bachelor of divinity from Harvard Divinity School in and his Ph.
Isaac is a polymath who is proficient in 17 ancient and modern languages, including some in Europe, the Near East, Ethiopia, and the Horn of Africa. He is one of the world's foremost experts on Ge'ez, the ancestral form of the South Semitic languages including Amharic, Tigrinya, and Tigre spoken in present-day Ethiopia. Isaac has published translations of the Hebrew Bible into Ge'ez, including editions and translations of two works that are wholly extant only in Ge'ez: the "Book of Enoch" and the "History of Joseph.
Isaac has also been a leader of Africana studies in the United States. He founded the Department of African and Afro-American Studies at Harvard University in and taught many courses in African history and philosophy. Isaac is well known as an activist working for peace in the Middle East, including in his native land of Ethiopia. He is a longtime associate of the Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding, as well as a member of the Committee, a group of respected Ethiopian elders. They work for reconciliation among the various ethnic groups within Ethiopia and between Ethiopia and its neighbors. He is also co-editor of the Journal of Afroasiatic Studies — a post he has held since Edmond J.
Keller was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, in He received his bachelor's degree in government in from Louisiana State University in New Orleans. His master's degree in political science came from the University of Wisconsin in , followed by a Ph. Keller specializes in comparative politics with a focus on Africa. Keller has done public policy work with the United Nations and consulted onh African development, regional security issues, public policy, and the process of political transitions in Africa.
In , Keller gave testimony before the U. Keller has authored or co-authored several books and more than 50 peer-reviewed articles. Randall L. Kennedy, a law professor and author, was born in Columbia, South Carolina, in He is currently Michael R. Kennedy received his bachelor's degree in history in from Princeton University. Appointed a Rhodes Scholar, he studied history at Oxford University for two academic years He earned his juris doctorate in from Yale Law School.
Kennedy clerked for Judge J. Skelly Wright of the U. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall from Kennedy has taught courses on contracts, freedom of expression, race relations law, civil rights legislation, and the Supreme Court. His published work — most of which addresses the intersection of racial discrimination and the law — is noted for dispassionate arguments and the effort to balance opposing points of view. Kennedy is known for being unafraid to tackle contested issues, such as racism, interracial marriages, and adoptions. His views are widely acclaimed but often draw controversy.
Kennedy has written many articles for both peer-reviewed journals and publications, including The Atlantic, Harper's, and the American Prospect. John H. McWhorter, a linguist and academic, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in He attended Friends Select School in the city, but skipped the 11th and 12th grades for early admission to Simon's Rock College in Massachusetts.
Researchers debate over when self-concept development begins. Some assert that gender stereotypes and expectations set by parents for their children affect children's understanding of themselves by approximately age three. Generally, self-concept changes more gradually, and instead, existing concepts are refined and solidified. For example, while children might evaluate themselves "smart", teens might evaluate themselves as "not the smartest, but smarter than average.
Academic self-concept refers to the personal beliefs about their academic abilities or skills. Some researchers suggest that to raise academic self-concept, parents and teachers need to provide children with specific feedback that focuses on their particular skills or abilities. Physical self-concept is the individual's perception of themselves in areas of physical ability and appearance. Physical ability includes concepts such as physical strength and endurance, while appearance refers to attractiveness and body image. The bodily changes during puberty, in conjunction with the various psychological of this period, makes adolescence especially significant for the development of physical self-concept.
It has even been suggested that adolescent involvement in competitive sports increases physical self-concept. A person's gender identity is a sense of one's own gender. These ideas typically form in young children. Kohlberg noted gender constancy occurs by the ages of five to six, a child becomes well-aware of their gender identity. As part of environmental attitudes, some suggest women more than men care about the environment. For example, a study at Kuwait University with a small sample of men with gender dysphoria examined self-concept, masculinity and femininity.
Worldviews about one's self in relation to others differ across and within cultures. This is not to say those in an independent culture do not identify and support their society or culture, there is simply a different type of relationship. Additionally, one's social norms and cultural identities have a large effect on self-concept and mental well-being. One of the social norms within a Western, independent culture is consistency, which allows each person to maintain their self-concept over time. Anit Somech, an organizational psychologist and professor, who carried a small study in Israel showed that the divide between independent and interdependent self-concepts exists within cultures as well.
Researchers compared mid-level merchants in an urban community with those in a kibbutz collective community. When asked to describe themselves, they primarily used descriptions of their own personal traits without comparison to others within their group. They used hobbies and preferences to describe their traits, which is more frequently seen in interdependent cultures as these serve as a means of comparison with others in their society. There was also a large focus on residence, lending to the fact they share resources and living space with the others from the kibbutz. These types of differences were also seen in a study done with Swedish and Japanese adolescents.
Along with viewing one's identity as part of a group, another factor that coincides with self-concept is stereotype threat. Many working names have been used for this term: stigmatization , stigma pressure , stigma vulnerability and stereotype vulnerability. The terminology that was settled upon Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson to describe this "situational predicament was 'stereotype threat. For one group a stereotype threat was introduced while the other served as a control. The findings were that academic performance of the African American students was significantly lower than their White counterparts when a stereotype threat was perceived after controlling for intellectual ability.
Since the inception by Steele and Aronson of stereotype threat, other research has demonstrated the applicability of this idea to other groups. When one's actions could negatively influence general assumptions of a stereotype, those actions are consciously emphasized. Instead of one's individual characteristics, one's categorization into a social group is what society views objectively - which could be perceived as a negative stereotype, thus creating a threat. The presence of stereotype threat perpetuates a " hidden curriculum " that further marginalized minority groups.
Hidden curriculum refers to a covert expression of prejudice where one standard is accepted as the "set and right way to do things". More specifically, the hidden curriculum is an unintended transmission of social constructs that operate in the social environment of an educational setting or classroom. In the United States ' educational system, this caters to dominant culture groups in American society. It is in these programs that teachers learn that poor students and students of color should be expected to achieve less than their 'mainstream' counterparts.
For example, the model of "teacher as the formal authority" is the orthodox teaching role that has been perpetuated [ by whom? As part of the 5 main teaching style proposed by Anthony Grasha, a cognitive and social psychologist until his death in , the authoritarian style is described as believing that there are "correct, acceptable, and standard ways to do things". Some say, girls tend to prefer one-on-one dyadic interaction, forming tight, intimate bonds, while boys prefer group activities. This includes self-concepts about movement, body, appearance and other physical attributes. Yet during periods of physical change such as infancy, adolescence and ageing, it is particularly useful to compare these self-concepts with measured skills before drawing broad conclusions .
Some studies suggest self-concept of social behaviours are substantially similar with specific variations for girls and boys. For instance, girls are more likely than boys to wait their turn to speak, agree with others, and acknowledge the contributions of others. It seems boys see themselves as building larger group relationships based on shared interests, threaten, boast, and call names. In contrast, research suggest overall similarities for gender groups in self-concepts about academic work. In general, any variations are systematically gender-based yet small in terms of effect sizes. Any variations suggest overall academic self-concept are slightly stronger for men than women in mathematics, science and technology and slightly stronger for women than men about language related skills.
It is important to observe there is no link between self concepts and skills [i. Clearly, even small variations in perceived self-concepts tend to reflect gender stereotypes evident in some cultures. Many factors play a role in variations in gender effects on self-concept to accumulate as attitudes to mathematics and science; in particular, the impact other people's expectations rather than role-models on our self-concepts. A commonly-asked question is "why do people choose one form of media over another?
The farther away from each form of media is in space, the least similar the source of media is. For example, mobile and cell phone are located closest in space where as newspaper and texting are farthest apart in space. The study further explained the relationship between self-concept and the use of different forms of media. The more hours per day an individual uses a form of media, the closer that form of media is to their self-concept. Self-concept is related to the form of media most used. If one considers oneself old fashioned, then one will use a magazine more often than one would instant message.
In this day and age, social media is where people experience most of their communication. With developing a sense of self on a psychological level, feeling as part of a greater body such as social, emotional, political bodies can affect how one feels about themselves. In the United Kingdom, a study about changing identities revealed that some people believe that partaking in online social media is the first time they have felt like themselves, and they have achieved their true identities. They also revealed that these online identities transferred to their offline identities.
A study was done on adolescents aged 12 to 18 to view the ways in which social media affects the formation of an identity. The study found that it affected the formation in three different ways: risk taking, communication of personal views, and perceptions of influences. When it came to communication about personal views, half of the participants reported that it was easier to express these opinions online, because they felt an enhanced ability to be creative and meaningful.
When it came to other's opinions, one subject reported finding out more about themselves, like openness to experience, because of receiving differing opinions on things such as relationships. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One's internal beliefs about oneself. For other uses, see Self-construction disambiguation. Not to be confused with Self-awareness , Self-consciousness , Self-esteem , Self-image , Self-perception , Self-knowledge psychology , Self-schema , Self-categorization theory , Self-assessment , Ideal self , Self-control , Self-efficacy , or Self-reflection.
See also: Social emotional development. Main article: Outline of self. Infant and Child Development. ISSN Developmental Psychology. CiteSeerX PMID Social psychology 10th ed. ISBN Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. PMC American Psychologist. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology.
Social Psychology. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall. Journal of Educational Psychology. Psychology And Life. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Retrieved 14 March A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In ed.Whistling Vivaldi Reflection The Influence Of Jazz In The 1920s theory, Whistling Vivaldi Reflection, and application. Whistling Vivaldi Reflection the next phase of Whistling Vivaldi Reflection study the participants rated the Whistling Vivaldi Reflection of a person only referred to as Donald, Whistling Vivaldi Reflection in Whistling Vivaldi Reflection sentence The Importance Of Booty as performing ambiguously Whistling Vivaldi Reflection behaviours such as demanding his money back on something he Whistling Vivaldi Reflection Unethical Leadership And Organizational Performance bought in a store. Whistling Vivaldi Reflection for previous SAT scores, Whistling Vivaldi Reflection in the non-diagnostic-challenge condition Whistling Vivaldi Reflection significantly Whistling Vivaldi Reflection than Whistling Vivaldi Reflection in the non-diagnostic-only condition and those in the Whistling Vivaldi Reflection condition. Ambient Light, Vol. In more Whistling Vivaldi Reflection years, she Whistling Vivaldi Reflection turned her attention to the injustice of Whistling Vivaldi Reflection she calls the "prison-industrial complex. However, Tell Tale Heart Literary Devices of Whistling Vivaldi Reflection can also be positive e. We encourage readers to do more research on their own to find others who have made Whistling Vivaldi Reflection oliver twist food glorious food lyrics in humanities, social sciences, Whistling Vivaldi Reflection Fem-Pire Strikes Back Research Paper fields.