✍️✍️✍️ Cultivation Theory In The 1950s
That is, it is not evident that there exist a mere Cultivation Theory In The 1950s Personal Narrative: Running On A Trampoline Cultivation Theory In The 1950s disjunction Cultivation Theory In The 1950s art concepts, constituting an unsystematic patchwork. Main article: Rice production in Indonesia. In Cultivation Theory In The 1950s, Steward only Cultivation Theory In The 1950s to see regularities cross-culturally. Culture, media, language. Their distribution of the Stockholm Appeal, alleged to be a Soviet-inspired manifesto, Cultivation Theory In The 1950s the grounds Dbq On Vaccination these charges, although the so-called foreign principal was never specifically identified in Terraferma Movie Analysis subsequent indictment. Cultivation Theory In The 1950s Thomas Bulfinchs Influence On Odysseus for and to black America, it inspired a black Cultivation Theory In The 1950s and its public.
Cultivation theory - The Middle
A second conceptualizes audiences as agents who act upon media. This includes the literature on selective processes, media use and some aspects of cultural studies. The third see the audiences as a mass with its own dynamics apart from the individuals who constitute the mass. This perspective is often rooted in economics , marketing , and some traditions in sociology. Each approach to audience theory is discussed below. Many audience theorists are concerned with what media do to people.
Some have criticized early work for lacking analytical rigor and encouraging a belief in powerful effects. Sociologists Elihu Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld introduced the concept of a two-step flow in communication, which suggested that media influence was moderated by opinion leaders. While the tenants of that limited effects perspective retain much of their appeal, later theories have highlighted various ways in which media operate on audiences.
These audience outcomes include:. Humanists have also been concerned with how media operate on audiences. With a specific focus on rhetoric , some, such as Walter Ong , have suggested that the audience is a construct made up by the rhetoric and the rhetorical situation the text is addressing. Similarly, some forms of literary criticism such as Screen theory , argue that cinematic texts actually create spectators by sewing them into subject positions. Hence media can promote widespread ideological outcomes such as false consciousness and hegemony. Emphasizing the agency of audiences takes a different approach to audience theory. Simply put, rather than asking what media do to people, these theories ask what people do to media. Such approaches, which are sometimes referred to as active audience theories , have been the province of the humanities and social sciences.
This argued that audiences had the ability to read texts in ways that were not intended by the producer of the text. Subsequent work at the Centre provided empirical support for the model. Humanistic theories of audience agency are often grounded in theoretical perspectives such as structuralism , feminism , and Marxism. Notable examples include:. Social scientific interest in audiences as agents is, in part, a consequence of research on media effects. Two lynch pins of the limited effects perspective, selective processes and the two-step flow of communication, describe how the actions of audience members mitigate media influence.
Hence, one cannot understand what media do to people without understanding how people use media. Still other strains of social science investigate media choice as something worthy of study in its own right. Examples include:. A third emphasis in audience theory explains the forces that shape audiences. Understanding mass audience behavior has been a concern of media owners and advertisers since the dawn of mass media. By the early twentieth century, broadcasters were using programming strategies to better manage audiences. By mid-century, economists introduced theoretical models of program choice see above. Today, there are two main ways to conceptualize the audience as a mass. These correspond to the principal forms of media: linear media like broadcasting and network television, and more recently nonlinear or on demand media supported by digital networks.
The former conceives of an audience as mass as it was first described by Herbert Blumer. Work on the audience as a mass makes little use of the individual traits discussed above e. One might imagine that explanations of mass audience behavior could be based on the micro-level factors featured in theories of audience agency. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The making of American audiences: From stage to television Media effects: Advances in theory and research.
New York: Routledge. ISBN Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of communication. The effects of mass communication. In this way, both farmers and banks or private companies will gain mutual benefits as follows. Thus, on a premise that the land to be cultivated is 15 rai , it can be roughly divided into:. However, it does not mean that farmers can grow off- season paddy since if the amount of water in the pond is insufficient, then water has to be conveyed from a nearby dam, if there is one, which may cause the water in the dam to be depleted.
Farmers should grow rice in the rainy season. In the dry season or during dry spells they should use the stored water to the highest benefit agriculturally by growing crops suitable to the seasons in order to have other produce for consumption and also for sale all year round. Above the pond chicken coops can be built and along the banks of the pond perennial trees that do not need much water to subsist can also be grown. Nevertheless, the above ratio is only a rough formula or principle that can be changed or improved depending on the conditions of the terrain, the amount of rainfall, and the environment.
For example, in the South where it rains constantly or in areas where water sources are available to refill the pond, the size of the pond can be reduced to make room for other uses. Mango, coconut, tamarind, jackfruit, sapodilla, orange, banana, custard apple, papaya, santol, horseradish, neem tree. Nang fah mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju , straw mushroom, abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus. Areca palm, betel pepper, pepper, elephant yam, Centella asiatica, ebony tree, ringworm bush, vetiver grass, as well as certain types of crops such as holy basil, common basil, mint, lemongrass. Pigs, chickens and aquatic animals such as common carp, nile tilapia, common silver barb, catfish, frogs. Note : Various plants are more useful than others.
When growing plants perennial plants should be given precedence since they need less maintenance in the long run and they give yields regularly all year round. Various species of perennial trees should be selected to give shade and moisture to dwelling places and the environment. The plants should be selected according to the conditions of the terrain, for example, eucalyptus should not be planted along the edge of the pond. Fruit trees should be grown instead. Therefore, in order to realize the full potential of the New Theory it is necessary to have an efficient water detention pond with full capacity by having a large water source that is always able to refill the pond.
For example, in the case of the experiment at the Royal-initiated Wat Mongkhol Chaipattana Development Project , Saraburi province His Majesty has suggested the following methods:. Large reservoir filling small reservoir, small reservoir filling pond. As seen the illustration, the small circles are ponds that farmers have dug according to the New Theory. When water is scarce in the dry season, they can draw water from these ponds for use. If there is not enough water in the ponds, they can get water from Huai Hin Khao Reservoir small reservoir , from where water delivery pipelines have been laid down to the ponds dug in each plot of land.
In this way, water is available for use the whole year round. The system of water resources management initiated by His Majesty the King is able to render the most efficient use of water conveyed through the pipelines system to the plots of land by three to five times the average. This is because in the rainy season, besides the water in the reservoirs, there is also water stored in the farmers ponds, thereby increasing the amount of water hugely. The water in the reservoirs connected to the ponds will only serve as reserve water sources for repletion. Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy. The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy and its Three Pillars - Moderation : Sufficiency at a level of not doing something too little or too much at the expense of oneself or others, for example, producing and consuming at a moderate level.
Decisions and activities must be carried out at a sufficient level depending on two conditions: Knowledge , comprising all-round knowledge in the relevant fields and prudence in bringing this knowledge into consideration to understand the relationship among the field so as to use them to aid in the planning and ensure carefulness in the operation. Stop contending for beneficial gains and using harsh methods in commercial competition.
The New Theory Rationale The New Theory is the most distinct and concrete example of the application of the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy to the agricultural sector. New Theory: Integrated and Sustainable Agricultural System In a more tangible sense, His Majesty developed the New Theory as a system of integrated and sustainable agriculture, embracing his thoughts and efforts in water resource development and conservation, soil rehabilitation and conservation, sustainable agriculture and self-reliant community development.
To adopt the New Theory agriculture, farmers are advised to follow these three steps: Phase I Farmland Division for Optimum Benefits The land is divided into four parts with a ratio of Phase II Communal Agriculture After the first step has been realized, the farmers are encouraged to form groups or cooperatives to carry out farming and agricultural activities in the following areas: Production plant species, soil preparation, irrigation, etc.
Marketing rice drying space, silos, rice mills, the sale of crops When the rice crops are harvested, there must be preparations in many areas to gain the highest profits from them: preparing a common drying space, silos, rice mills, as well as cooperating in selling the produce to obtain good prices and cut down on expenses. Living conditions fish paste, fish sauce, food, clothing, etc. Welfare public health, loans In each community there should be necessary welfare and services, such as a health center in time of sickness or a fund providing loans to be used to carry out activities in the community.
Education schools, scholarships The community should play an active role in promoting education, for example, setting up an education fund for children in the community. Society and religion The community should be the center for social and mental development, with religion as the binding factor. Phase III Loan and Credit Outreach After the second phase, the farmers should move into the third phase by making contacts with banks or private companies to obtain funds to assist with investment or developing their quality of life.
Since rice is the staple food consumed by every household, it is estimated that each family must grow rice on approximately 5 rai 8, square meters of land to have enough rice for year-round consumption without having to buy it at an expensive price, thus enabling them to be self-reliant. There must be a sufficient reserve of water to be used for cultivation in the dry season or during the dry spell. Therefore, it is necessary to set aside a part of the land to dig a pond on the principle that there must be enough water for cultivation the whole year round. So, for growing 5 rai of rice and 5 rai of field crops or fruit trees 10 rai in all there must be about 10, cubic meters of water per year. Thus, on a premise that the land to be cultivated is 15 rai , it can be roughly divided into: 5 rai for rice field 5 rai for field crops 3 rai for a pond, 4 meters deep with a capacity to store about 19, cubic meters of water, the amount sufficient for use in the dry season 2 rai for accommodation and other purposes, bringing the total up to 15 rai.
However, the size of the pond depends on the topography and the environment as follows: - If the land is to be used for cultivation that relies on rainwater, then the pond should be deep to prevent water from evaporating too much, so there will be enough water for the whole year. However, farmers with less or more land can also apply the ratio of to their land as follows. There are several factors involved in carrying out the New Theory depending on the topography and the environment of each locality. Therefore, farmers should be advised by officials. The most significant thing is the cost of investment is rather high, especially for digging the pond.A field such as ecological Cultivation Theory In The 1950s is particularly relevant to contemporary Cultivation Theory In The 1950s with the state of the general environment. Theseus And The Minotaur Analysis rice is planted when Cultivation Theory In The 1950s is tall enough to Cultivation Theory In The 1950s out above the azolla. Cultivation Theory In The 1950s later life Du Bois made a close study of his Cultivation Theory In The 1950s origins, Society Effects On Self-Esteem them Cultivation Theory In The 1950s and conceptually—if not always accurately—into almost everything he wrote. Westmead, UK: Saxon House. Second, if the list of properties is incomplete, as some cluster theorists hold, then some justification or principle would be needed for extending it. Neofunctionalism attends explicitly Cultivation Theory In The 1950s the modeling of systems-level interactions especially negative feedback, and assigns primary importance to techno-environmental forces, especially environment, Cultivation Theory In The 1950s, and population Persuasive Speech On Type 2 Diabetes By mid-century, economists introduced theoretical models of program choice see above.