① R J Palacio Character Analysis
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So how similar are they? What homologues can be identified? The general conclusion from the study by Butler, et al. The structures assumed to be critical for consciousness in mammalian brains have homologous counterparts in avian brains. Thus the main portions of the theories of Crick and Koch ,  Edelman and Tononi ,  and Cotterill  seem to be compatible with the assumption that birds are conscious. Edelman also differentiates between what he calls primary consciousness which is a trait shared by humans and non-human animals and higher-order consciousness as it appears in humans alone along with human language capacity.
For instance, the suggestion by Crick and Koch that layer 5 neurons of the mammalian brain have a special role, seems difficult to apply to the avian brain, since the avian homologues have a different morphology. The assumption of an avian consciousness also brings the reptilian brain into focus. The reason is the structural continuity between avian and reptilian brains, meaning that the phylogenetic origin of consciousness may be earlier than suggested by many leading neuroscientists. Joaquin Fuster of UCLA has advocated the position of the importance of the prefrontal cortex in humans, along with the areas of Wernicke and Broca, as being of particular importance to the development of human language capacities neuro-anatomically necessary for the emergence of higher-order consciousness in humans.
Opinions are divided as to where in biological evolution consciousness emerged and about whether or not consciousness has any survival value. Some argue that consciousness is a byproduct of evolution. It has been argued that consciousness emerged i exclusively with the first humans, ii exclusively with the first mammals, iii independently in mammals and birds, or iv with the first reptiles. Thomas Henry Huxley defends in an essay titled On the Hypothesis that Animals are Automata , and its History an epiphenomenalist theory of consciousness according to which consciousness is a causally inert effect of neural activity—"as the steam-whistle which accompanies the work of a locomotive engine is without influence upon its machinery".
Regarding the primary function of conscious processing, a recurring idea in recent theories is that phenomenal states somehow integrate neural activities and information-processing that would otherwise be independent. Another example has been proposed by Gerald Edelman called dynamic core hypothesis which puts emphasis on reentrant connections that reciprocally link areas of the brain in a massively parallel manner. These theories of integrative function present solutions to two classic problems associated with consciousness: differentiation and unity. They show how our conscious experience can discriminate between a virtually unlimited number of different possible scenes and details differentiation because it integrates those details from our sensory systems, while the integrative nature of consciousness in this view easily explains how our experience can seem unified as one whole despite all of these individual parts.
However, it remains unspecified which kinds of information are integrated in a conscious manner and which kinds can be integrated without consciousness. Nor is it explained what specific causal role conscious integration plays, nor why the same functionality cannot be achieved without consciousness. Obviously not all kinds of information are capable of being disseminated consciously e. For a review of the differences between conscious and unconscious integrations, see the article of E. As noted earlier, even among writers who consider consciousness to be a well-defined thing, there is widespread dispute about which animals other than humans can be said to possess it. Thus, any examination of the evolution of consciousness is faced with great difficulties.
Nevertheless, some writers have argued that consciousness can be viewed from the standpoint of evolutionary biology as an adaptation in the sense of a trait that increases fitness. Other philosophers, however, have suggested that consciousness would not be necessary for any functional advantage in evolutionary processes. There are some brain states in which consciousness seems to be absent, including dreamless sleep, coma, and death. There are also a variety of circumstances that can change the relationship between the mind and the world in less drastic ways, producing what are known as altered states of consciousness.
Some altered states occur naturally; others can be produced by drugs or brain damage. The two most widely accepted altered states are sleep and dreaming. Although dream sleep and non-dream sleep appear very similar to an outside observer, each is associated with a distinct pattern of brain activity, metabolic activity, and eye movement; each is also associated with a distinct pattern of experience and cognition. During ordinary non-dream sleep, people who are awakened report only vague and sketchy thoughts, and their experiences do not cohere into a continuous narrative. During dream sleep, in contrast, people who are awakened report rich and detailed experiences in which events form a continuous progression, which may however be interrupted by bizarre or fantastic intrusions.
Both dream and non-dream states are associated with severe disruption of memory: it usually disappears in seconds during the non-dream state, and in minutes after awakening from a dream unless actively refreshed. Research conducted on the effects of partial epileptic seizures on consciousness found that patients who suffer from partial epileptic seizures experience altered states of consciousness. Studies found that when measuring the qualitative features during partial epileptic seizures, patients exhibited an increase in arousal and became absorbed in the experience of the seizure, followed by difficulty in focusing and shifting attention.
A variety of psychoactive drugs , including alcohol , have notable effects on consciousness. The brain mechanisms underlying these effects are not as well understood as those induced by use of alcohol,  but there is substantial evidence that alterations in the brain system that uses the chemical neurotransmitter serotonin play an essential role. There has been some research into physiological changes in yogis and people who practise various techniques of meditation. Some research with brain waves during meditation has reported differences between those corresponding to ordinary relaxation and those corresponding to meditation.
It has been disputed, however, whether there is enough evidence to count these as physiologically distinct states of consciousness. The most extensive study of the characteristics of altered states of consciousness was made by psychologist Charles Tart in the s and s. Tart analyzed a state of consciousness as made up of a number of component processes, including exteroception sensing the external world ; interoception sensing the body ; input-processing seeing meaning ; emotions; memory; time sense; sense of identity; evaluation and cognitive processing; motor output; and interaction with the environment.
The components that Tart identified have not, however, been validated by empirical studies. Research in this area has not yet reached firm conclusions, but a recent questionnaire-based study identified eleven significant factors contributing to drug-induced states of consciousness: experience of unity; spiritual experience; blissful state; insightfulness; disembodiment; impaired control and cognition; anxiety; complex imagery; elementary imagery; audio-visual synesthesia ; and changed meaning of percepts.
Phenomenology is a method of inquiry that attempts to examine the structure of consciousness in its own right, putting aside problems regarding the relationship of consciousness to the physical world. This approach was first proposed by the philosopher Edmund Husserl , and later elaborated by other philosophers and scientists. In philosophy , phenomenology has largely been devoted to fundamental metaphysical questions, such as the nature of intentionality "aboutness".
In psychology , phenomenology largely has meant attempting to investigate consciousness using the method of introspection , which means looking into one's own mind and reporting what one observes. This method fell into disrepute in the early twentieth century because of grave doubts about its reliability, but has been rehabilitated to some degree, especially when used in combination with techniques for examining brain activity. Introspectively, the world of conscious experience seems to have considerable structure. Immanuel Kant asserted that the world as we perceive it is organized according to a set of fundamental "intuitions", which include 'object' we perceive the world as a set of distinct things ; 'shape'; 'quality' color, warmth, etc.
Understanding the physical basis of qualities, such as redness or pain, has been particularly challenging. David Chalmers has called this the hard problem of consciousness. For example, research on ideasthesia shows that qualia are organised into a semantic-like network. Nevertheless, it is clear that the relationship between a physical entity such as light and a perceptual quality such as color is extraordinarily complex and indirect, as demonstrated by a variety of optical illusions such as neon color spreading.
In neuroscience, a great deal of effort has gone into investigating how the perceived world of conscious awareness is constructed inside the brain. The process is generally thought to involve two primary mechanisms: hierarchical processing of sensory inputs, and memory. Signals arising from sensory organs are transmitted to the brain and then processed in a series of stages, which extract multiple types of information from the raw input. In the visual system, for example, sensory signals from the eyes are transmitted to the thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex ; inside the cerebral cortex they are sent to areas that extract features such as three-dimensional structure, shape, color, and motion. First, it allows sensory information to be evaluated in the context of previous experience.
Second, and even more importantly, working memory allows information to be integrated over time so that it can generate a stable representation of the world— Gerald Edelman expressed this point vividly by titling one of his books about consciousness The Remembered Present. Bayesian models of the brain are probabilistic inference models, in which the brain takes advantage of prior knowledge to interpret uncertain sensory inputs in order to formulate a conscious percept; Bayesian models have successfully predicted many perceptual phenomena in vision and the nonvisual senses.
Despite the large amount of information available, many important aspects of perception remain mysterious. A great deal is known about low-level signal processing in sensory systems. However, how sensory systems, action systems, and language systems interact are poorly understood. At a deeper level, there are still basic conceptual issues that remain unresolved.
Gibson and roboticist Rodney Brooks , who both argued in favor of "intelligence without representation". The entropic brain is a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs. The theory suggests that the brain in primary states such as rapid eye movement REM sleep, early psychosis and under the influence of psychedelic drugs, is in a disordered state; normal waking consciousness constrains some of this freedom and makes possible metacognitive functions such as internal self-administered reality testing and self-awareness. The medical approach to consciousness is practically oriented. It derives from a need to treat people whose brain function has been impaired as a result of disease, brain damage, toxins, or drugs.
In medicine, conceptual distinctions are considered useful to the degree that they can help to guide treatments. Whereas the philosophical approach to consciousness focuses on its fundamental nature and its contents, the medical approach focuses on the amount of consciousness a person has: in medicine, consciousness is assessed as a "level" ranging from coma and brain death at the low end, to full alertness and purposeful responsiveness at the high end. Consciousness is of concern to patients and physicians, especially neurologists and anesthesiologists. Patients may suffer from disorders of consciousness or may need to be anesthetized for a surgical procedure.
Physicians may perform consciousness-related interventions such as instructing the patient to sleep, administering general anesthesia , or inducing medical coma. In medicine, consciousness is examined using a set of procedures known as neuropsychological assessment. The simple procedure begins by asking whether the patient is able to move and react to physical stimuli. If so, the next question is whether the patient can respond in a meaningful way to questions and commands.
If so, the patient is asked for name, current location, and current day and time. The more complex procedure is known as a neurological examination , and is usually carried out by a neurologist in a hospital setting. A formal neurological examination runs through a precisely delineated series of tests, beginning with tests for basic sensorimotor reflexes, and culminating with tests for sophisticated use of language. The outcome may be summarized using the Glasgow Coma Scale , which yields a number in the range 3—15, with a score of 3 to 8 indicating coma, and 15 indicating full consciousness. The Glasgow Coma Scale has three subscales, measuring the best motor response ranging from "no motor response" to "obeys commands" , the best eye response ranging from "no eye opening" to "eyes opening spontaneously" and the best verbal response ranging from "no verbal response" to "fully oriented".
There is also a simpler pediatric version of the scale, for children too young to be able to use language. In , an experimental procedure was developed to measure degrees of consciousness, the procedure involving stimulating the brain with a magnetic pulse, measuring resulting waves of electrical activity, and developing a consciousness score based on the complexity of the brain activity. Medical conditions that inhibit consciousness are considered disorders of consciousness. One of the most striking disorders of consciousness goes by the name anosognosia , a Greek-derived term meaning 'unawareness of disease'.
This is a condition in which patients are disabled in some way, most commonly as a result of a stroke , but either misunderstand the nature of the problem or deny that there is anything wrong with them. Patients with hemispatial neglect are often paralyzed on the right side of the body, but sometimes deny being unable to move. When questioned about the obvious problem, the patient may avoid giving a direct answer, or may give an explanation that doesn't make sense. Patients with hemispatial neglect may also fail to recognize paralyzed parts of their bodies: one frequently mentioned case is of a man who repeatedly tried to throw his own paralyzed right leg out of the bed he was lying in, and when asked what he was doing, complained that somebody had put a dead leg into the bed with him.
An even more striking type of anosognosia is Anton—Babinski syndrome , a rarely occurring condition in which patients become blind but claim to be able to see normally, and persist in this claim in spite of all evidence to the contrary. William James is usually credited with popularizing the idea that human consciousness flows like a stream, in his Principles of Psychology of According to James, the "stream of thought" is governed by five characteristics: . Buddhist teachings describe that consciousness manifests moment to moment as sense impressions and mental phenomena that are continuously changing.
The moment-by-moment manifestation of the mind-stream is said to happen in every person all the time. It even happens in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, or analyses the material body including the organ brain. In the West, the primary impact of the idea has been on literature rather than science: " stream of consciousness as a narrative mode " means writing in a way that attempts to portray the moment-to-moment thoughts and experiences of a character. This technique perhaps had its beginnings in the monologues of Shakespeare's plays and reached its fullest development in the novels of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf , although it has also been used by many other noted writers.
Here, for example, is a passage from Joyce's Ulysses about the thoughts of Molly Bloom:. To most philosophers, the word "consciousness" connotes the relationship between the mind and the world. To writers on spiritual or religious topics, it frequently connotes the relationship between the mind and God, or the relationship between the mind and deeper truths that are thought to be more fundamental than the physical world. The mystical psychiatrist Richard Maurice Bucke , author of the book Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind , distinguished between three types of consciousness: 'Simple Consciousness', awareness of the body, possessed by many animals; 'Self Consciousness', awareness of being aware, possessed only by humans; and 'Cosmic Consciousness', awareness of the life and order of the universe, possessed only by humans who are enlightened.
Another thorough account of the spiritual approach is Ken Wilber 's book The Spectrum of Consciousness , a comparison of western and eastern ways of thinking about the mind. Wilber described consciousness as a spectrum with ordinary awareness at one end, and more profound types of awareness at higher levels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Conscious. Sentience or awareness of internal or external existence. This article is about cognition. For other uses, see Consciousness disambiguation and Conscious disambiguation. Not to be confused with Conscientiousness or Conscience. Further information: Theory of mind. Main article: Mind—body problem. Main article: Problem of other minds. See also: Animal consciousness.
See also: Artificial consciousness. Schema of the neural processes underlying consciousness, from Christof Koch. Main article: Anosognosia. Main article: Stream of consciousness psychology. Further information: Level of consciousness esotericism and Higher consciousness. Medicine portal Philosophy portal. Antahkarana Centipede's dilemma Cognitive closure Cognitive neuroscience Cognitive psychology Chaitanya consciousness Episodic memory Explanatory gap Functionalism philosophy of mind Hard problem of consciousness Indian psychology Sakshi Witness Merkwelt Mirror neuron Models of Consciousness Modularity of mind Neural correlates of consciousness Neuropsychological assessment New mysterianism Orch-OR Philosophical zombie Plant perception paranormal Problem of other minds Quantum mind Reentry neural circuitry Solipsism Turing test.
Retrieved June 4, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. In Max Velmans; Susan Schneider eds. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. ISBN In Honderich T ed. The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford University Press. Houghton Mifflin. Consciousness and Cognition. PMID S2CID Guertin Retrieved 31 August Antony Journal of Consciousness Studies. Royal Institute of Philosophy. The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall. Questions of Consciousness. London: Routledge. The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical debates. Fins; N. Schiff; K. Foley Mind PDF. Australia: University of Adelaide.
Retrieved August 20, A Dictionary of the English Language. Translated by Scott St. Lewis Studies in words. Cambridge University Press. University Press. The whole works, Volume 2. Hodges and Smith. Dictionary of Untranslatables. A Philosophical Lexicon. Princeton University Press. Molenaar British Journal for the History of Philosophy. Consciousness: from perception to reflection in the history of philosophy. Oxford Dictionaries — English. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Macmillan Dictionary of Psychology. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Philosophical Studies. The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press. Block; O. Flanagan; G. Guzeldere eds. The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical Debates. MIT Press. Consciousness Explained.
Archived from the original on International Journal of Philosophy: 17— Consciousness and Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on Sameroff ; Marshall M. Haith, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. In defining 'consciousness' as a self-reflective act, psychology loses much of the glamour and mystery of other areas of consciousness-study, but it also can proceed on a workaday basis without becoming paralyzed in pure abstraction. Psychological Reports. Consciousness is based on language I have used your wonderful work for a few years now and realized I have yet to thank you. Thank you so much for helping me bring this book to life for my children.
They especially enjoy the music and theater videos and references. As I have used it this year, I noticed a few of the image links no longer appear, but those are simple enough to find. Your generosity is much appreciated. You are so welcome. We are all in this together, aren't we? I want your students to be successful as much as I want success for my own students. We might as well help one another along the way, and these resources a just a small way of doing so.
I'm glad you find them useful! I try to find the dead links at the beginning of each school year, and I thought I found them all this year. Let me know if you find some more pictures that have vanished. To my knowledge, it's only mentioned at the very end when it's listed as her postcard precept. Why should we ask questions? What's wrong with the answers? Who is James Thurber? Is this request from a student? What do YOU think the quote is all about? I'm glad you liked the book, but I'm just a teacher who put together this website. The author is R. Thanks for visiting Mr. W Reads. Feel free to leave a comment or question, and I will respond as quickly as possible.
All comments are moderated, so your comment may not appear right away. Trenton Lee Stewart Goodreads Author. Robert C. Norton Juster. Judy Blume Goodreads Author. Sherman Alexie. Philip Pullman. George Orwell. Christopher Paolini Goodreads Author. Rebecca Stead. Laura Ingalls Wilder. Frances Hodgson Burnett. Maggie Stiefvater Goodreads Author. Mildred D. Rodman Philbrick. Karen Hesse. Gary D. Jane Yolen Goodreads Author. Frank Baum. Theodore Taylor. Kate DiCamillo Goodreads Author. Leigh Bardugo Goodreads Author.
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Jack the annoying freak 80 books 31 friends. Holly books friends. Heather books friends. Michele books 1 friend. Post a comment ». Jun 27, PM. That's 11 to 14 year olds Jul 01, PM. I see wat u mean about that but twilight is very interesting and everyone should be encouraged to read! I see wat u are saying Laura, but twilight can be enjoyed by all audiances. Breaking Dawn is where it gets fuzzier 'specially since she doesn't get out of bed for odd pages Jul 02, PM.
Breaking Dawn is where it gets fuzzier 'specially since she d Jul 04, PM. Jul 05, AM. I think this is a good book list because i will be in middle school next year. And i should probably read some of these then. Jul 05, PM. Jul 08, PM. Jul 09, AM. It's called Intellectual Freedom. And I was and still am full of suggestions--and I warn of things that might be "too old" for reader. But it;s their choice. Jul 09, PM. Andrew's books, there not in the middle school "range". Jul 10, AM. Jul 10, PM. Chrissy honey, Twilight was written for Teens sorry to brake it to u Jul 11, AM. But the book WAS written very badly. Jul 20, PM. Twilight has a few kisses, nothing else. Chrissy wrote: "i thought twilight was aimed for year olds.
I don't think that any six year old is ready for that. Even ten year olds, that's just too much. Sep 21, PM. I agree - Twilight is a joke. Encourage kids to read, yes. Twilight on a list of must reads? I'm sorry but when I was in middle school our reading list was full of classics, not movie adaptations. Sep 28, PM. About Twilight? I would like to read something other than a girl in love with a vampire. The first book is good enough, but the rest of the series goes on and on about how awesome is to be with a vampire. Read them all, so I talk as a former Twilighter. Edward Cullen doesn't really exist and thank God for that! Oct 19, AM. I'm all for intellectual freedom for readers but as far as the Twilight series goes I'm not sure I would let my middle-schooler read those.
There's not enough in the context advocating a woman's independence when in a tough situation. Not to mention some of the graphic content. Nov 14, AM. Twilight is a book that kids in middle school that don't like to read should read. It's that shallow.Note: In many stories the Golem was mindless, but some gave it emotions or thoughts. R J Palacio Character Analysis must now fall to the Government of Japan Foer Eating Animals Analysis take the necessary final steps to provide adequate R J Palacio Character Analysis. Hinton Goodreads Author 4. Closely R J Palacio Character Analysis navigation is the simple fact of making your website understandable and feel easy to use.