➊ Winston Churchills Response To Leadership

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Winston Churchills Response To Leadership

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The Art \u0026 Leadership of Winston Churchill

Attlee telephoned Downing Street at about pm to confirm that Labour would join a coalition government, but not under Chamberlain's leadership. On Saturday, 11 May, the Labour Party agreed to join the national government under Churchill's leadership and he was able to form his war cabinet which, at the outset, was restricted to five members including himself as Prime Minister and Minister of Defence. By the 21 May, German tanks were approaching Boulogne-sur-Mer. John Colville in his diary entry that day said preparations for the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force BEF were being made in case of necessity. Their hopes rested mostly on the success of the Weygand Plan , a proposed counter-offensive by themselves in conjunction with a strike from the south by the main French forces.

This did not come to fruition and the BEF commander, Lord Gort , decided that evacuation was the only option. During 23 and 24 May, the Royal Navy evacuated an estimated 4, servicemen from Boulogne. At a war cabinet meeting on the morning of Friday the 24th, Churchill reported that there were large numbers of French troops in Dunkirk but as yet no British servicemen other than a few specialist units. He had been advised that the port was functioning well with supplies being unloaded. There was a proposal to send Canadian troops to Dunkirk but this was pending developments in the wider theatre. The war cabinet's interest in Italy on 24 May was limited to keeping it out of the war, or at least delaying its entry.

Halifax presented a telegram from the French government which suggested an approach to the Italian dictator Mussolini by U. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , assuming he was willing to co-operate, for the purpose of enquiring what Mussolini's grievances were in order to have these discussed by all concerned before any resort to military action. Halifax was not confident that anything would come of the French idea but he said he would support it on condition that the approach was presented to Mussolini as a personal initiative by Roosevelt. On the morning of 24 May, Hitler, having consulted General von Rundstedt , ordered the Panzers to halt their advance.

Some of the German commanders disagreed with it and, a week later, General von Bock wrote in his diary that "when we do finally reach Dunkirk, the English will all be gone". The war cabinet met in Downing Street at am. Halifax also reported on a discussion between Sir Robert Vansittart and an unnamed Italian diplomat, although he understood the approach to be unofficial. Boulogne surrendered on the afternoon of 25 May and the 10th Panzer Division led the German attack on Calais with support from the Luftwaffe. With the BEF and its allies in retreat and Lord Gort warning them of impending disaster, the war cabinet had to consider the consequences of French defeat. Gort predicted the loss of all equipment and doubted that more than a small percentage of servicemen could be evacuated.

The report concluded that resistance to the Wehrmacht would be impossible if they gained a secure foothold in Britain: without the bulk of the army stranded in France, the home-based forces and civil defence would be inadequate. It had been calculated that Germany's air superiority was about four to one and it was vital that the British war effort must concentrate primarily on the production of fighter aircraft and crews, and the defence of those factories essential to fighter production should have priority. The report had two main conclusions. One was that the United Kingdom could probably resist invasion if the RAF and the Royal Navy remained intact and this became a key point in Churchill's argument, against Halifax, that the country should fight on without negotiation.

It included a statement by Halifax that "matters which cause anxiety to Italy must certainly be discussed as part of the general European settlement". This was presented to the war cabinet next day. At this stage, France and Britain wanted to keep Italy out of the war, but Halifax wanted to use Mussolini as a mediator to secure a peace that would, while giving Hitler almost complete control of continental Europe, ensure the autonomy and security of Great Britain and its empire.

In his biography of Churchill, Roy Jenkins says this would have been the equivalent of a second Munich twenty months after the first. The key factor was that this negative outlook deprived him of Churchill's indomitable courage. He could not understand that such a prospect was repugnant to Churchill and so conflict between the two was inevitable. At pm, Churchill chaired a defence committee meeting at Admiralty House in which he directed that a war cabinet meeting should be held at am the next morning. The minutes of the defence committee meeting included an order to Gort that he should march north to the coast i.

Churchill also decreed that a plan Operation Dynamo should be formulated by the Royal Navy to prepare all possible means of re-embarkation from the ports and beaches. The RAF were directed to dominate the air above the area involved. Over these three days, seven top secret ministerial meetings including two that were adjourned and reconvened were held at Downing Street, Admiralty House or in the Prime Minister's office at the House of Commons.

He was sometimes assisted by other civil servants or military experts. Ironside became Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces. At this stage of the war, Churchill's position as Prime Minister was still precarious. Churchill could not, therefore, afford to have both Chamberlain and Halifax aligned against him. Churchill therefore had a slender majority in the war cabinet, but so much depended on Chamberlain who was always somewhere between Churchill and Halifax. Churchill decided to invite Sinclair to attend the war cabinet after the Sunday meetings.

Even with a four to two majority around the table, Churchill could not risk both Chamberlain and Halifax resigning as that would bring the Conservative majority into the equation and, almost certainly, an appeasement government like the one that would soon surrender in France. French premier Paul Reynaud was in London for much of Sunday and had a working lunch with Churchill between two war cabinet meetings, followed by a meeting with Halifax at about pm. The war cabinet met at am and pm both at Downing Street.

The second one was adjourned so that, first, Halifax and then the rest of the war cabinet could meet Reynaud at Admiralty House. The war cabinet reconvened there at about pm, following Reynaud's departure. Churchill opened the meeting by briefing his colleagues on the Saturday night defence committee meeting and informing them of Reynaud's visit later on Sunday. He explained that, because of communication difficulties, the French high command had not known of Gort's decision that the BEF must retreat to Dunkirk and await evacuation.

Churchill said that General Maxime Weygand was now aware and had accepted the situation. Weygand had instructed Blanchard to use his own discretion in supporting the retreat and evacuation as there was no longer any possibility of making a counter-attack to the south, especially as the French First Army had lost all its heavy guns and armoured vehicles. Churchill anticipated the total collapse of France and feared that Reynaud was coming to London to confirm it. As a result, evacuation of the BEF was now the government's first priority and, hence, the conclusions reached on Saturday night and transmitted to Gort.

Churchill remained optimistic and expressed an opinion that there was "a good chance of getting off a considerable proportion of the BEF" and that he would make every endeavour to persuade Reynaud to fight on. At this time, he did not know Reynaud's plans for the day and provisionally arranged another war cabinet meeting at pm. Even so, in the interest of being prepared to meet all eventualities, Churchill had asked the Chiefs of Staff CoS to consider the situation which would arise if the French did surrender, on the following terms of reference: [46]. In the event of France being unable to continue in the war and becoming neutral, with the Germans holding their present position, and the Belgian army being forced to capitulate after assisting the British Expeditionary Force to reach the coast; in the event of terms being offered to Britain which would place her entirely at the mercy of Germany through disarmament, cession of naval bases in the Orkneys, etc; what are the prospects of our continuing the war alone against Germany and probably Italy.

Can the Navy and the Air Force hold out reasonable hopes of preventing serious invasion, and could the forces gathered in this Island cope with raids from the air involving detachments not greater than 10, men; it being observed that a prolongation of British resistance might be very dangerous for Germany engaged in holding down the greater part of Europe. CoS 40 , completed on the 25 May and now to be reviewed in the light of the new terms of reference set out by the Prime Minister. CoS 40 , completed late on 26 May and presented to the war cabinet the next day.

WCP 40 , written by Greenwood on the 26 May and discussing the economic aspects of the problem. There followed a brief discussion among the CoS about the defence of Calais and then, for the first time, Halifax raised the subject of Italian mediation by stating his opinion that "on the broader issue, we the government must face the fact that it is not so much now a question of imposing a complete defeat upon Germany but of safeguarding the independence of our own Empire and if possible that of France". He proceeded to give a report of his conversation with Bastianini who had requested a conference on the peace and security of Europe.

According to Bastianini, it was Mussolini's principal wish to secure peace in Europe. Halifax had answered this by saying "we should naturally be prepared to consider any proposals which might lead to this, provided our liberty and independence were assured". Churchill replied that: [49]. Peace and security might be achieved under a German domination of Europe. That we could never accept. We must ensure our complete liberty and independence. We must oppose any negotiations which might lead to a derogation of our rights and power.

Chamberlain predicted that Italy would soon issue an ultimatum to France and then come in on Germany's side. Attlee pointed out that Mussolini would be very nervous of Germany emerging as the predominant power in Europe. Soon after this, an aide-memoire paper no. CoS 40 was distributed by the CoS. Entitled Visit of M. Reynaud on 26th May, and signed jointly by Ironside, Newall and Pound, it anticipated the eventuality that Reynaud would announce the intention of France to make a separate peace. It firstly presented arguments to deter the French from capitulation and stressed that even if the French had decided to capitulate, "we shall continue the fight single-handed". The war cabinet expressed several views on the content of the paper.

Halifax displayed a lack of understanding when he said that Great Britain could not fight alone without first establishing and then maintaining complete air superiority over Germany. Newall corrected him as the report had not said that. Instead, it was necessary to prevent Germany from achieving complete air superiority as that would enable them to invade England. Sinclair doubted Germany's ability to maintain the oil supplies necessary for a prolonged air war. Newall told Halifax that his issue was out of scope as this memoire was focused on French capitulation.

Strategic questions would be discussed in the second report for which Churchill had presented terms of reference earlier. The meeting ended with the war cabinet approving the instructions given to Gort by the defence committee that he should retreat to Dunkirk in full battle order. A fleet of ships and small boats would be assembled for the evacuation. The forces in Calais were to hold out for as long as possible. The CoS would prepare a supplement to their report, based on Churchill's terms of reference. Apart from the docks, where a British contingent held on until Monday morning, the town of Calais was taken by the Wehrmacht on Sunday afternoon.

Although Calais was a hopeless defence, it nevertheless slowed the coastal advance of the 10th Panzer Division towards Dunkirk, to which the Allied forces were already retreating. The war cabinet resumed its deliberations at pm. Churchill began by describing his lunchtime meeting with Reynaud, who had stated that the French military situation was desperate but that he had no intention of signing a separate peace treaty with Germany. Churchill told Reynaud that the United Kingdom was not prepared to give in on any account and would rather go down fighting than be enslaved to Germany. Reynaud confirmed that no terms had yet been offered by Germany. Having briefed the war cabinet on his own discussion with Reynaud, Churchill suggested that Halifax should go over to Admiralty House and meet Reynaud himself.

The others would join them shortly. Before Halifax left, there was another brief discussion about Italy. Reynaud had told Churchill that he wanted to keep Italy out of the war so that ten French divisions on the Italian border could be released to fight the Germans. Reynaud was worried about the sort of terms Italy would require as France would certainly have to cede territory. Halifax said he believed an approach must be made to Italy. He had faith in Mussolini to persuade Hitler to take a more reasonable attitude. Churchill replied that he did not think anything would come of an approach to Mussolini, though he did agree that it was a matter for the war cabinet to discuss further.

For the moment, Churchill's sole concern was that the French must provide as much assistance as possible in the evacuation of the BEF. Churchill had to treat Halifax carefully until he was more sure of Chamberlain's views. He could not risk a direct conflict with Halifax while his own position in the Conservative party was insecure, because Halifax had strong support in the party. Fortunately for Churchill, Chamberlain never trusted Mussolini and did not want him involved in any negotiations. Chamberlain's main concern through the three days was that the French must be mollified and encouraged to stay in the war, so he was very cautious about refusing any requests by Reynaud, even one he disagreed with.

After Reynaud's departure, the war cabinet held another meeting in Admiralty House. The cabinet papers do not cover the first fifteen minutes as the Cabinet Secretary was not present to take minutes. The cabinet papers indicate that this session was in fact a continuation of the pm one by including both under the same heading. It seems to have lasted about an hour from pm till pm as, in effect, the third Sunday meeting.

The minutes confirm that the service ministers were not present. In the minutes, Churchill began by comparing the United Kingdom's military status with that of France. We, he said, still had powers of resistance and attack, which France did not. If France could not defend herself, he asserted, it was better that she should get out of the war rather than drag Great Britain into a settlement which involved intolerable terms. Attlee and Chamberlain both suggested that Hitler had a schedule and that he must win the war before winter.

Churchill replied that he wanted France to hang on but stressed that the United Kingdom must not be forced into the weak position of seeking negotiation before engaging in any serious fighting. Halifax now openly disagreed with Churchill by saying that he attached "rather more importance than the Prime Minister to the desirability of allowing France to try out the possibilities of European equilibrium". Greenwood pointed out that it was not within Mussolini's power to take a line independent of Hitler and Chamberlain added that Mussolini could only take an independent line if Hitler allowed him to do so.

Chamberlain added that the problem was a difficult one and every point of view must be discussed. Having listened to Chamberlain, who was still somewhere between himself and Halifax, Churchill suggested that nothing should be decided about future conduct of the war, including any negotiated settlement, until the evacuation of the BEF from Dunkirk was completed. WP 40 , together with a record of his latest meeting with Bastianini.

While Churchill may already have gained the support of the two Labour members, he needed Sinclair as Liberal Party leader to strengthen his position. At pm, Ramsay sent the signal which initiated Dynamo, though with evacuation in some form already having taken place over the last four days, it is difficult to differentiate between the work of Dynamo and the work that preceded it. The Calais docks finally fell on the morning of Monday the 27th. Throughout the day, a total of 7, servicemen were evacuated from Dunkirk harbour but none as yet from the beaches. The minutes from the am meeting are the longest taken at any of the war cabinet meetings between 24 and 29 May there are 28 pages in one volume and seven in the other.

However, his perseverance pushed him through his fear and allowed him to become one of the greatest public speakers of all time. Overcoming his shortcomings, Churchill was motivated in succeeding at everything he did and leaving behind a legacy. As daunting as this sounds, Churchill understood the importance of recreation as it was a way to stimulate his mind through a change of pace. Churchill had unusual work habits as he often took naps during the day and working through the night. Unlike most leaders today, the time he spent was devoted to a blend of rest and relaxation and working at achieving his goals and desires.

Winston Churchill's measure of success can be summed up best by his quote "success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing your enthusiasm". Thanks to his leadership traits, Churchill learned from his mistakes and kept a positive outlook which was instrumental to his overall success. Like Churchill, I have a very optimistic personality and believe in turning my failures into positive experiences to aid in my continued growth as a leader. Churchill's Power. Throughout his tenure as Prime Minister, Churchill exercised referent power due to his charismatic trait.

Daft believes referent power "depends on the leader's personal characteristics rather than on a formal title or position and is especially visible in the area of charismatic leadership" Daft, Due to his charisma, Churchill was able to tap into the hearts and minds of the British people and utilize them as a resource to successfully defeat Hitler's Nazi regime. I believe referent power is extremely important in energizing people to overcome near impossible challenges. Learning from leaders like Churchill, I have incorporated some of his actions into my leadership style in order to be more effective at using the five types of power.

Churchill's Followers Leadership is about understanding people and the process of getting people to accomplish set tasks or objectives. Great leaders listen to understand, connect on an emotional level with their followers and inspire people to get things done. Winston Churchill succeeded as a leader during wartime but failed in peacetime by not being able to reflect people's post-war needs. During the wartime years, Churchill had a great relationship with the majority of his followers which comprised of the British soldiers and citizens. His charisma and leadership style empowered the people into achieving greatness. I believe Churchill was a great follower during his soldiering days as a cavalry officer which provided a wealth of experience for him to draw from in his later years.

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. WWII British Prime Minister Winston Churchill is greatly remembered as the greatest prime minister Britain has ever had with his indefatigable spirit which pushed the country through the tumultuous years of the Second World War. The great war leader, though, is also known for another thing — his sharp tongue. His ability to make up clever one-liners may be one of the factors why his legend is kept alive trough these long five decades after his death.

Here are the witty, funny and clever sayings from the celebrated politician himself — Sir Winston Churchill.

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