⒈ Should Smoking Be Allowed

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Should Smoking Be Allowed



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Why aren't cigarettes banned? - BBC My World

This will provide guidance to bus drivers and indicate to passengers that they should keep away from the kerb-edge. Where a fully enclosed shelter is used allowance must be made for manoeuvring space for wheelchair users both into and within the shelter. It is recommended that shelters of this type should be mm in depth and with a minimum of mm clear footway space between the rear of the shelter and the inner edge or heel of the footway to allow the wheelchair user space to turn into the shelter entrance. However, as with the other types of shelter, the clear footway to the rear should be mm if possible giving a total footway width of mm.

If the enclosed shelter is placed at rather than downstream of the bus boarding area the exit from the shelter onto the bus boarding area should be mm wide, with the shelter itself set back from the kerb edge by a minimum of mm. Bus stop flags should be fixed as low as possible while remaining visible above road traffic, pedestrians and any other nearby obstacles.

The bottom of the flag should not be less than mm above ground. The minimum size for the flag given in TSRGD is mm wide by mm high, but it is recommended that a larger size, mm wide by mm high should be used if possible. Bus route numbers on the flag should be at least 50mm high. A US demonstration project found that a limited amount of information was more effective than a substantial amount, which tended to lead to confusion.

That research suggested just:. In the future it is possible that there will be automatic onbus announcements made as the bus approaches each stop. Where there are a lot of different routes using one stop it may be better to keep these off the flag and put them on the time table display, but they must be shown in one or the other place. Bus stop signs should be positioned so as to be visible to passengers inside the vehicle so that they can verify where they are. A raised capital letter B about 20mm high at a height of mm from the ground fitted to the bus stop pole or other structure at the bus stop will assist blind people.

The clearance between a bus stop pole and the kerb edge should be mm mm minimum. Coloured bands should be applied to the bus stop pole to enhance visibility, in accordance with the dimensions given in Section 3. As with bus shelters, bus stops should be well lit with sufficient illumination to enable reading. A good level of lighting will also improve personal security. Seating should be provided where possible see Section 9. Shelters should incorporate a bench, platform or horizontal rails to rest against at a height of about mm. Any seating should be painted or self-coloured in a contrasting colour and, if not undercover, should be designed so that rainwater does not collect on it.

Where seating is provided in a shelter, sufficient clear space should be left for use by a wheelchair passenger. Timetable information should be provided at as many bus stops as is feasible. Timetable and information displays should be located between mm and mm in height. Information that is of particular relevance to wheelchair users should be put at the bottom of the display and any important information should not be more than mm above ground. If surrounding street lighting is not adequate, additional lighting should be provided at the stop itself.

The information provided should include at minimum details of the route s , destination s and departure times. Full timetables and route diagrams are helpful to passengers unfamiliar with the service s and are essential for longer routes or less regular services. Details of other stopping places in the vicinity and routes servicing them will avoid confusion where routes cross or there is more than one stopping place. Lettered bus stops, as used in London and elsewhere, should be used where stops are split between different routes at complex junctions or picking-up points, with maps of the stop locations, letters and route numbers displayed at each stop.

Where bus stops are lettered, the letter should be shown on the bus stop flag as well as on the timetable display. The information provided on this display should also include directions to and distance of the nearest public telephone, with the display itself including the bus operating companys telephone number and textphone number. The maps of bus stop locations should also show where public telephones are, including any textphones, separately identified.

Where space permits, new designs of panel bus stops provide more space for information. These types of bus stop poles are more frequently found in other parts of Europe and are usually mm to mm wide with a width of up to about mm available for information. Visual displays of expected arrival times of buses at stops, destinations served and any delays are helpful for all passengers but particularly so for deaf and hard of hearing people. Where real-time information of this type is provided, the screen should be shielded from direct sunlight see also Section Voice activated information systems will assist people with visual impairments and learning difficulties.

The increasing number of low-floor buses coming into operation and the implementation of the DDA regulations mean that vehicles are much more accessible than previously, but the benefits of low floor entry are negated if the bus cannot draw up close to the kerb. At present over 80 Licensing Authorities have introduced mandatory orders requiring some or all of the taxis within their area to be wheelchair accessible. Regulations under consideration for implementation under the DDA will require further wheelchair accessible taxis to be provided. Wherever feasible to do so, taxi ranks should be provided adjacent to railway, bus and coach stations, and all major attractors such as retail areas. If possible, ranks should be located close to the facility being served and should have clear signs within the facility showing where they are.

Ranks should be sited so that passengers board or alight onto the footway from the nearside of the taxi. The width of unobstructed footway should be sufficient to allow the deployment of wheelchair ramps up to mm and adequate manoeuvring space for the wheelchair user. The suggested total width is mm. A dropped kerb or raised road crossing should be provided close to the rank if passengers need to cross a street to get to or from the taxis. The ranks themselves should be clearly signed and should have seating close by.

If the rank does not have taxis regularly standing at certain times, the sign should state what these times are and give telephone number s for calling a taxi. Embossed information of this type would assist blind and partially sighted people. Although this guide is primarily concerned with the design and dimensions of specific features in the built environment, it is worthwhile mentioning the wider principles that should determine the location and general layout of transport facilities. Public transport can seldom provide through door-to-door services, so many journeys will involve passengers transferring from one mode to another or, at the very least having to walk from a station to their final destination.

The table in Section 2. Thus a centrally located bus station on a less than ideal site may be preferable to a superb interchange that many potential passengers find difficult or impossible to reach. The size and layout of interchanges and bus stations will be dictated by the frequency and pattern of services, but it is important to use as compact a layout as possible, so minimizing walk distances. A two-level station, provided there is good access between the levels, may be better than an extensive single-level site. A compact layout with passenger facilities concentrated in one area will also be easier to supervise and reduce any fear felt by passengers who might otherwise have to wait in quiet, isolated areas.

Completely new railway stations are infrequently built, those that are are often Parkway stations towards the outskirts of urban areas. It is essential at these stations that provision is made immediately by the station for interchange from road-based transport: buses and taxis as well as private cars. This requirement applies as much to existing railway stations. Where passengers are moving between road and rail services, or between different bus services within a station, conflicts between pedestrians and moving road vehicles should be kept to a minimum. There are a number of different basic layouts for bus stations including oblique-angled bays, saw-tooth bays, L, U or horseshoe layouts and island layouts. The design adopted will depend among other things on the dimensions of the site available and the numbers of buses using it, but layouts with buses stopping.

Oblique angled bus bays mean that the bus has to reverse back out of the bay which can be a hazard though careful attention to railing off the reversing area from any adjacent pedestrian areas can reduce this. Wherever passengers do need to cross the path of buses, fixed crossing points, very clearly marked with level access and priority for pedestrians are essential. As rail and bus stations may be approached by a variety of means: pedestrian, by car parked or drop off paratransit service etc, the pathways leading to the station entrance should be accessible from all of these approaches.

As stated in the US Accessibility Handbook: Regardless of which means passengers use to get to the station, approaches have to be accessible and minimize the distance to an accessible entrance. It is important that disabled passengers should be able to find accessible entrances easily, thus there should be clear signs to indicate where the accessible entrance is and to direct people to it from any other entrances that may not be fully accessible. Entrances should be in contrasting colours to their building.

Clear signage throughout transport sites and buildings is important for everyone, particularly deaf and hard of hearing people. The physical location of transport infrastructure bus, railway stations etc varies greatly; at ground level, below ground, above, single or multi-level. The basic principles in designing access, however, remain the same whatever the specific physical characteristics of the building.

A single step at the entrance to a building or a kerb without a ramp in the road outside can make the most carefully designed terminal inaccessible to some disabled people. If possible entrances to stations should not have doors, but this is not always feasible, for example for reasons of security or to retain heat within the building. Where there are doors they should be automatic, linked either to a weight sensor or to sensors mounted above the door; manual doors are very difficult for people in wheelchairs to manage. Revolving doors are not well suited to many people, including disabled people, but if they are installed, an alternative hinged or sliding door must be provided.

The clear width of the door s once open should preferably be mm ; mm is the minimum acceptable. Where double leaf doors are installed each leaf should be mm wide, with mm as a minimum. Space immediately before and after a door is also important to allow for people to stand clear if the door opens towards them and for wheelchair users to manoeuvre. At the very least there should be a clear, level space of mm on both sides of the doorway; preferably more than this.

Where there are two doors in series there should be a minimum space between of mm plus the width of any door swinging into this space. If a space of mm can be achieved, it makes manoeuvring in a wheelchair much easier. The door handle should be of the lever type, which is easier for people with any weakness in their hands to manipulate, and if horizontal should be at a height of mm and with a minimum length of mm. If the door has a vertical bar rather than a lever handle, this should stretch from to mm above floor level.

The diameter of the door handle or bar is recommended as 30mm to 35mm. As with any rails, there should be sufficient space between the inner side of the handle or rail and the surface of the door to avoid people catching their knuckles on the door. The recommended gap is 45mm. Doors should be fitted with a kick plate, mm in depth at the bottom of the door and, where they are made of glass or other translucent material, should have contrast colour banding in accordance with the standards given in Section 3.

The contrasting feature should be repeated at a lower level of between mm and mm above floor level. However, clear glass doors can be a hazard for visually impaired people and use of this material should be avoided if possible, except to provide a viewing panel, which should extend from adult eye level down to mm from the floor. Glass used in a door must be safety glass.

Automatic sliding doors are recommended in preference to manually operated doors and should remain open for a minimum of six seconds, preferably nine seconds, and should not open faster than three seconds to back check. Many automatic doors incorporate a time delay device whereby the doors close automatically after a prescribed time lapse. The operation of automatic doors can be triggered by a sensing device or by foot or hand pressure, pendant switch or push button. The most suitable operating device is mat contact, where doors are held open for as long as the area on either side is occupied. Mats must be sensitive to pressure exerted unevenly for example by crutch users and to light pressure for example exerted by an assistance dog.

Where doors are operated by photoelectric cells a Z layout of light beams ensures that doors remain open if traffic moves slowly. Pressure required to stop doors closing should not be more than In the event of a power failure it must be possible to move the door freely by hand. If the doors are controlled by a push button it is recommended that the button be located mm from floor level and a similar distance from the side of the door with appropriate luminance and colour contrast. If manual doors are used, it must be possible to open them with minimal effort: some people with severe disabilities cannot exert a force even as low as Australian standards sub-divide the action of opening a door into three movements with different acceptable levels of force for each:.

However, the Strategic Rail Authority recommends an opening force of 15N , which is preferred to the Australian standard of Thresholds should be level, but if this is not possible, the maximum acceptable threshold rise is 10mm. Any rise of more than 5mm should have a bevelled edge. Doors should have tonal contrast with the wall around them and door handles should contrast with the doors, to help visually impaired people. Doormats should be flush with the floor finish. Rubber backed mats, placed on top of the existing floor finish can ruck and present a trip hazard, and should not be used. Coir dirt mats and mats with directional weave are not recommended, as they can impede access for people with walking difficulties and people using wheelchairs.

There should be a lighting transition zone immediately within the entrance door to enable adjustment from a bright outdoors to a more dimly lit interior or vice versa. If there is a canopy at an entrance, care should be taken to ensure that the supporting structure is either incorporated into the building fabric, positioned on a verge or clearly marked at eye level mm with contrasting banding mm in depth. The width of space required for wheelchair users, people with assistance dogs etc was given earlier in Sections 2.

Where an access route is predominantly less than mm wide, passing places should be provided to allow two wheelchair users to pass each other. A passing place should be a minimum of mm long by a minimum of mm wide and located within direct sight of another, or at a maximum distance of 50 metres from another, whichever is the closer. The dimensions of objects if they're used in transport passageways, such as rail platforms.

Text aimed at an information board reads: hazard protection needed if an object projects more than mm within a zone mm above ground level. A second text refers to a white cane user navigating a narrow part of the passageway as: if it is necessary to narrow the access route, restricted width should be not less than mm and should extend for no more than 6 metres. Where it is necessary to introduce occasional narrowing of the access route, the restricted width should not be less than mm and should extend for no more than 6 metres.

At least one accessible route within the boundary of the site shall be provided from public transportation stops, accessible parking, and accessible passenger loading zones and public streets or sidewalks to the accessible building they serve. The accessible route shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coincide with the route for the general public. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, facilities elements, and spaces that are on the same site. The same source also says that accessible routes servicing any accessible space or element shall also serve as a means of egress in emergencies or connect to an accessible area of rescue assistance.

An access route should have a clear height of not less than mm mm absolute minimum. Isolated objects that cause an occasional narrowing of the access route, but which project not more than mm from their base into the access route, do not need hazard protection. However, if an object projects more than mm within a zone between and mm above ground level then hazard protection should be provided.

If the base of the projection is less than mm above ground level, no hazard protection is needed. Well-designed corridors help every user to find their way through a building. People with visual impairments generally navigate by focussing mainly on the floor up to mm ahead of travel. Floor finishes are therefore instrumental in helping visual impaired people to find their way. They should incorporate landmarks which may be one or a combination of features, such as visible clues, tactile indicators, sounds etc. For example, different materials, texture changes and raised symbols could indicate that stairs are being approached, there is a junction opposite etc.

Such changes and symbols should be consistent throughout the building. The end wall of a corridor should be highlighted by, for example, good colour and tone contrast between the wall and floor and a change in lighting. Glare problems caused by windows positioned at the end of corridors or passageways can be reduced by using tinted glass, anti-glare treatment or blinds. As a general rule, walls should have light, non-reflective surfaces and should be in a colour which contrasts with the floor, so that the boundary of the floor is clearly visible.

Where there are substantial distances to be traversed within terminals, travelators help a lot of people, but they should always have a parallel walkway. For some people, particularly older people who are a little unsteady, stepping onto a moving walkway is not a comfortable experience. Where travelators are provided, the direction of travel should be shown clearly and the footway at both ends should be marked by colour contrast and a change in floor finish. The travelator must be well lit, particularly at its entrance and exit.

Moving handrails should be rounded in section, in a colour which contrasts with the background and should extend approximately mm beyond the beginning of the walkway. The recommended width for a travelator is mm with a minimum height clearance of mm. The side panels of the travelator channel should be finished in a non-reflective surface; back illuminated side panels can be very disorientating. The speed of movement of the travelator should be kept low: 0. The surface should be non-slip and there should be clearly visible emergency stop switches that can be reached and operated by. An audible warning at the beginning and prior to the end of the travelator is essential for visually impaired people. Travelators should have a minimum unobstructed level run-off at each end of 6 metres.

The maximum gradient for a travelator should be 5 per cent 1 in This section covers changes in level [footnote 6]. Even a single step will prevent access for the great majority of wheelchair users and be a trip hazard for others , so alternatives must be provided; either ramps or lifts. However, the design of steps and stairs themselves is important. Good design can greatly assist ambulant disabled people and those with visual impairment. A considerable amount of research on dimensions and design of steps and stairs was carried out in the s and s and there is reasonable consistency between the dimensions given in various national guidelines.

A riser height of mm can be managed by most people; a little more than this is possible if there are well designed handrails but mm should be regarded as the maximum in normal circumstances. Steps with very shallow risers can cause problems and should be avoided; mm is the absolute minimum. Tread depth or going should be mm deep approximately the length of a size 9 shoe , never less than mm and the nose of the step should be rounded 6mm radius without any overhang. People with walking difficulties often pull their feet up the face of the riser; any overhang will catch their foot.

Common criteria from several guidelines are that all steps in a flight must have the same dimensions, that open tread staircases are to be avoided, as are curved or spiral staircases and that there should be tactile warning surfaces at the foot and head of the stairs see Section 4. Stairs should be well lit minimum lux , see Section 11 and surfaced with a slip resistant material. Colour contrast on the step noses is essential for visually impaired people and should extend across the full width of each tread, 55mm deep on both tread and riser. People with walking difficulties cannot manage long flights of steps. The maximum number of risers in a flight should be 12 , with resting places between successive flights.

Resting places should be at least mm long, preferably mm , and across the full width of the stairway. The minimum number of steps in a flight should be three ; fewer than this is less safe. Stairs should have a minimum clear width between handrails of mm , preferably mm which is sufficient for a disabled person and companion. Handrails should be provided on both sides see Section 8. Stairs that lead to a platform, on which people will be carrying luggage, should be mm wide with centre handrails.

As mentioned in Section 3. The appropriate hazard warning surface should also be provided at the top and bottom of steps as detailed in Section 4. There should be unobstructed landing space at the top and bottom of each flight of stairs of a length at least equal to the unobstructed width of the stairway. In many places ramps defined as a gradient of more than 1 in 20 will provide the alternative access to stairs for wheelchair users.

Where the change in level is no more than mm a ramp may be used without alternative steps. Dimensions for a ramp. All dimensions are detailed in the text below, apart from on resting places. Resting places should be level and the full width of ramp, preferred length mm, minimum length mm. As described in Section 3. There is a relationship between the length of a ramp and the gradient that people can manage; the longer the ramp the less severe the gradient that is feasible. One possible approach to this is, where a lengthy ramp is necessary, to design more frequent landings and lesser slopes for each successive segment. BS states that a ramped approach should have the lowest practical gradient and should be within the limits shown in the table below.

A slightly steeper gradient of 1 in 10 is acceptable over very short distances, for example a ramp covering a distance of mm. Gradients steeper than 1 in 10 are not only physically difficult to manage but may cause the wheelchair to overbalance. If more than one flight is needed, there must be rest places between the flights. These should be level if under cover 1 in 50 gradient if outside to drain surface water should be at least mm long and the full width of the ramp.

The landings at the foot and head of a ramp should be at least mm long, clear of any obstruction such as door swing and, again, should be the full width of the ramp. The minimum surface width of a ramp should be mm , but as with stairways, two- way movement requires more space preferably mm minimum mm. Handrails should be provided on each side, with a minimum clear width rail to rail of mm. Where this unobstructed width exceeds mm , a central, continuous handrail may be used as an alternative to a handrail on each side. The sides of a ramp should be protected by a raised solid kerb at least mm in height.

Australian standards also state that if the kerb height exceeds 75mm there must be no slot or gap greater than 20mm in the range of 75mm to mm. This is done to avoid the possibility of the footplate of a wheelchair riding over the kerb or becoming trapped. These standards also require the ramp-side face of the kerb to be flush with, or no more than mm away from the ramp-side face of the handrail. Transition between level and inclined parts of the ramp should be sufficiently rounded to ensure that a wheelchair user does not get caught by the foot supports.

There is rarely a need for cross fall on a ramp. If drainage is thought likely to be a problem, the use of a pervious surface should be considered. Physically fitting a ramp into the available space can be a problem if a lift cannot be made available. South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive has calculated that a ramp needed to give an over-rail clearance of 4. It is not clear how practicable ramps of this length would be for wheelchair users. Many manual wheelchair users would probably not be able to manage these distances unaided, though what constitutes a reasonable maximum length is not known; this is an area where further research is needed. The report of the European COST project on Passengers Accessibility of Heavy Rail Systems states that ramps should never be longer than metres in total and preferably no longer than 50 metres.

The preferred figure 50 metres means that ramps should not be used to bridge between platforms. No individual flight of a ramp should have a length of more than 10 metres or rise more than mm. Where railway stations are being refurbished provision of lifts should be considered where the alternative would be a long ramp. However, it would be unrealistic to expect that lifts will always be provided so, in spite of their drawbacks, lengthy ramps are likely. Where a long ramp is unavoidable, stairs should also be provided; some people prefer to climb a shorter staircase properly designed than a very much longer ramp.

The hazard warning tactile surface should be used at the foot of ramps to on-street LRT platforms, but should not be used at other ramps. Ramp surfaces must be slip resistant and non-reflective. A colour and tone contrasting V shaped marking on the ramp surface is helpful, with the apex of the V at the top of the ramp or ramp section. If portable or temporary ramps have to be used to give access to an existing building where space is limited, they should be positioned and their presence identified so that they do not constitute a hazard to passers-by. These ramps should have a surface width of at least mm , a drainable, slip-resistant surface and upstands to prevent wheelchair tyres veering off the edge.

Handrails should be provided on both sides of stairways and ramps and down the centre of stairs when their unobstructed width ie between handrails exceeds mm see Section 8. The recommended height to the top of the principal handrail is between mm and mm above the pitchline of the steps or above the surface of the ramp. On landings the top of the handrail should be between mm and mm from the surface. Handrails should continue beyond the end of the ramp slope or end of the stairs by a minimum distance of mm and should either return to the wall or down to the floor or have a minimum rounded downturn of mm.

Second, lower handrails for children and people of restricted growth are helpful and should be at heights of between mm and mm. The handrail itself should be smooth and comfortable to use by people with arthritic hands that is they should not be too small in diameter. Circular handrails should have a diameter between 40mm and 50mm ; if not circular the handrail should be a maximum of 50mm wide by 38mm deep with rounded edges radius of at least 15mm. There should be a clear space between the handrail and any adjacent wall of at least 50mm , preferably 60mm. Handrails should be supported centrally on the underside so there is no obstruction to the passage of the hand along the rail. There should also be a minimum of mm clear space above the handrail. The maximum speed recommended for escalators is 0.

The recommended minimum width is mm and the maximum mm. Step heights are specified as a maximum of mm or mm if the escalator would be used as an emergency exit when stationary. Tread surface should be a matt, non-reflective finish. The moving handhold should be between and mm above step nosing and, as with handrails on stairs, extend a minimum of mm beyond the ends of the escalator. It should be clearly colour contrasted and should move synchronously with the escalator. Clear space on the approach to an escalator used in heavily trafficked places should be 10 metres or more. The direction of travel should be clearly indicated top and bottom and the steps should form level areas at top and bottom of the escalator of at least mm and mm respectively falls on boarding or leaving are the most common type of accident on escalators.

An audible warning at the beginning and just before the end of the escalator is essential for visually impaired people. Good lighting is also important, with a minimum of 50 lux and there should be a minimum vertical clear height above the escalator of mm. Step edge marking in a contrasting colour is also required on the tread only 55mm deep and there should be a noticeable change in lighting at the bottom and top of the escalator. It should be borne in mind that escalators are difficult for some ambulant disabled people to use and cannot be used at all by people in wheelchairs or with assistance dogs. As a general rule, where there are substantial changes in level, a lift should be provided and should be clearly signed as an alternative to the escalator.

Lifts are essential for wheelchair users and for some people who have walking difficulties when there is a substantial change in levels. They should be provided in preference to very long ramps. Finding the lift location can be a problem for blind, deafblind and partially sighted people. Lift locations should be clearly sign posted from the main pedestrian route and recognizable through design and location. Ideally the internal dimensions of a lift should be big enough to enable a wheelchair user to turn round and come out facing forwards, but space constraints, particularly where a lift is put into an existing building may dictate less than an ideal size. The draft European Lift Standard April defines minimum internal dimensions measured between the structural lift car walls see table, below.

Any decorative finishes of a wall must not exceed 15mm in thickness. Dimensions for the outside and inside of a lift. All figures are included in the table and the accompanying text. It should be noted that these are minimum dimensions. The depth of lift required by a wheelchair user with an elevated leg rest may be more than the dimensions given; a minimum of mm is suggested.

This depth also makes turning a wheelchair round easier. Lifts provided in the pedestrian and transport environment should be large enough for a person to accompany the wheelchair user. The increasing numbers of scooters used in the outside environment also argue for using larger dimensions wherever possible than those given in the table. Where it is possible to fit them, walk through lifts ie with doors on opposite sides are preferable to single door lifts.

If a tip-up seat is provided it should not impede the normal use of the lift when in its folded position and it should be colour contrasted. How do you feel about women smoking? How do you feel about children smoking? What is the youngest age that a person should be allowed to smoke? Can people smoke anywhere in your country? Are there any restrictions? Do you know what the laws are here about smoking in public places? Where can people smoke in your school?

What happens to students who smoke at your school? Do you think students should be allowed to smoke at school? Is it a good thing for people to quit smoking? Would they like to quit smoking? Do you worry about people who smoke? Do other members of your family or friends smoke? How long have they been smoking? Why did they begin? Is it easy to quit smoking? What is the best way to quit?

Have you, your family or friends ever tried to quit smoking? Los Angeles Time. Archived from the original on Retrieved US News. Retrieved 3 December The Wall Street Journal. ISSN OCLC The Big Money. Archived from the original on June 16, Wall Street Journal. New York Times. Archived from the original PDF on Convenience Store News. Section a 1. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 10 September November 8, The New York Times. Reynolds Tobacco Company, et al. Retrieved 23 April The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 February Food and Drug Administration of the United States.

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