✯✯✯ Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America

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Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America



Included with distributors and dealers are agents, brokers, Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America representatives, and others who facilitate finding and selling to consumers. Need an account? Radical Feminism Blames the exploitation of women on men. The Indians Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America it from the perspective of their own colonial past and their contemporary issues, while the Euro-American Kathrinas Behavior In The Taming Of The Shrew considers it from the global issues, their own experiences with fundamentalism in light of Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America liberal and relativist positions, states Juergensmeyer. They Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America on a limited number of goals 2. RSS, one of the main votaries of Steven Spielberg Characteristics, has stated that Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America believes in a cultural connotation of the term Hindu.

HighbrowLowbrow The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America The William E Massey Sr Lectures in

Unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one God; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more. The latter term means Hinduism and its various sub-traditions, while the term Hindutva in Savarkar's ideology meant the "socio-political force to unite all Hindus against foreign influences," states Flood.

The term took roots in light of the description of Indic religions and the "western preconceptions about the nature of religion", which the Indian intellectuals disagreed with. This attempt to articulate what Hinduism is, coupled with emerging political and cultural beliefs, has evolved and contributed to the various meanings of the term, states Lipner. According to Jinnah, "the differences between Hindus and Muslims in India were not merely religious, but entirely different ways of life and thought.

This history is an example of the Ernest Gellner theory of nationalism, states Jaffrelot. When the privilege-power equation is threatened by the social forces of history, "culture, skin pigmentation" and such ethnic markers become a basis to presume inferiority of the other and a pretext to manipulate the situation. Using a language of nationalism, one group tries to maintain the status quo, while the other seeks to overthrow it. In British India, states Jaffrelot, Muslim nationalism and separatism "certainly did not develop" from feelings of having been discriminated against, but their mobilisation came from "the fear of decline and marginalization" of their historic privilege among the Muslim elites in British India.

The mutual use of identity symbols helped crystallise the other's convictions and fuel each other's fears. They have been and remain central to organisations such as the BJP and the Sangh Parivar associated with the Hindutva ideology, according to Jean-Luc Racine, a scholar of nationalisms and separatisms with a focus on South Asia. The Muslim League was also criticised for "its creed of Islamic exclusiveness, its cult of communal hatred" and called a replica of the German Nazis.

Retrieved 23 December The Wire. Patterns of Prejudice. ISSN X. Social Scientist. JSTOR Ethnic and Racial Studies. S2CID Quote: "It is also argued that the distinctively Indian aspects of Hindu nationalism, and the RSS's disavowal of the seizure of state power in preference for long-term cultural labour in civil society, suggests a strong distance from both German Nazism and Italian Fascism. Part of the problem in attempting to classify Golwalkar's or Savarkar's Hindu nationalism within the typology of 'generic fascism', Nazism, racism and ethnic or cultural nationalism is the unavailability of an appropriate theoretical orientation and vocabulary for varieties of revolutionary conservatism and far-right-wing ethnic and religious absolutist movements in 'Third World' countries".

Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. ISBN Retrieved 9 May Hindu Nationalism: A Reader. Princeton University Press. Harvard University Press. He did, however, consider the religion's cultural traditions to be key markers of Hindutva, along with geographical attachment to the motherland and a sense of oneself as a part of a "race determined by a common origin, possessing a common blood". History and the Making of a Modern Hindu Self. Retrieved 24 September Cohen Derek R. Peterson, Darren R. Walhof ed. Rutgers University Press. East-West Center, Washington. Constitutional Democracy in India.

The Supreme Court on Hindutva. Oxford University Press. The first recorded use of the word Hindutva, at least in print, is believed to have been made in this book. Open The Magazine. Retrieved 29 October South Asian Review. ISSN Hindu nationalism: origins, ideologies and modern myths. Discourses, Public Addresses, and Informal Talks. In Kaufmann, Eric P. London: Routledge. Johnson A Dictionary of Hinduism. It was subsequently employed by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his book Hindutva: Who is a Hindu to convey the idea of a universal and essential Hindu identity. Flood An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. Anna King ed.

Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Introduction; Nationalists, Communalists and the Provincial Elections". Pakistan: Nationalism Without A Nation. Zed Books. Christophe Jaffrelot ed. Nations and Nationalism. Encyclopaedia Britannica. American Ethnologist. Economic Weekly. Retrieved 26 October New York: Random House. Hindutva and Dalits. It was seriously handicapped in electoral competition by the limitations of its organization and leadership, by its inability to gather support through appeals to Hindu nationalist sentiment, and by its failure to establish a broad base of social and economic interests.

Radhika Desai ed. Developmental and Cultural Nationalisms. Political Parties in South Asia. Jacobsohn Hindu Nationalism. Informa UK Limited. Rosalind I. Hackett ed. Modern Asian Studies. Smith Nationalism: Critical Concepts in Political Science. Ghosh Press Trust of India. Rediff on the Net. DNA India. Retrieved 18 February The Indian Express. India as a secular state. Primus Boks. Hindu Nationalism and Indian Politics. Yahoo News India. Archived from the original on 5 November Forum for Hindu Awakening. Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 26 September Economic and Political Weekly. Research in Political Economy.

Religion Compass. A Comparative Look at Hindutva and Zionism". Hindutva Harassment Field Manual. Retrieved 11 July The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India. Columbia University Press. Walter Laqueur ed. University of California Press. Richard Bessel ed. The Caravan. Brandeis University. Ramachandran 1 February Parel Gandhi's Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony. Contemporary South Asia. Ram-Prasad Gavin Flood ed. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 6 September The Hindu. Washington Post. Retrieved 28 August Association for Asian Studies. Retrieved 11 September Andersen, Walter K.

Delhi: Vistaar Publications. Augustine, Sali In Erich Kolig; Vivienne S. Angeles; Sam Wong eds. Identity in Crossroad Civilisations. Amsterdam University Press. Bharat Prakashan Delhi: Bharat Prakashan. OCLC Elst, Koenraad Voice of India. Frykenberg, Robert Griffin; R. Mallett and J. Tortorice eds. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Golwalkar, M. In Christophe Jaffrelot ed. Hindu Nationalism - A Reader. Goyal, Des Raj Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.

Delhi: Radha Krishna Prakashan. Graham, B. Low ed. Katju, Manjari Vishva Hindu Parishad and Indian Politics. Orient Blackswan. Krishna, Ananth V. Pearson Education India. Pandey, Gyanendra In Gyanendra Pandey ed. New Delhi: Viking. Panikkar, K. Retrieved 20 February Parvathy, A. Secularism and Hindutva, A Discursive Study. Martin's Press, , pp. Sameeksha Trust India. Embree, Ainslie T. Martin E. Marty and R. Marty, R. Poonacha, Veena 13 March Desai, Radhika. Nussbaum, Martha C. New Delhi; Thousand Oaks, Cal. Sampath, Vikram Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past First ed. Penguin Viking. In the case of private firms, the major objective is profit; in the case of nonprofit and public organizations, it is surviving and attracting enough funds.

A company makes money by satisfying customer needs better than its competitors. These are 1. Sales Decline: When Sales fall, companies panic and look for answers. Today newspapers decline as people are more replying on Radio, TV and Internet for the news 2. Slow Growth: Slow sales growth leads companies to search for new markets. They realize they need marketing skills to identify and select new opportunities 3. Changing buying patterns: Many companies operate in markets characterized by rapidly changing customer wants. These companies need more marketing knowhow if they are to track buyers changing values 4. Increasing Competition: Complacent industries may be suddenly attacked by powerful competitors.

Companies in deregulated industries all find it necessary to build up marketing expertise 5. Increasing Marketing Expenditures: Companies may find their expenditures for advertising, Sales, Promotion, marketing Research and Customer Service to be poorly done. Management then decides to take a serious audit to improve its marketing Companies need to attract and retain customers through superior product offerings, which delivers the Customer satisfaction. Resistance is especially strong in the industries where Marketing is introduced for the first time-like law offices, colleges, deregulated industries and government offices.

But in spite of resistance the Company president establishes a Marketing department, marketing talents are hired and seminars conducted, Marketing budget increased and Marketing planning and Control systems introduced. It calls for social and Ethical considerations in marketing. They must balance the conflicting criteria of Company profits, consumer want satisfaction and Public Interest.

How Businesses and Marketing are Changing? They perceive fewer Brand Loyalty and Product differences. They can obtain Extensive Product information from the Internet and other sources and shop intelligently. Brand manufacturers are facing intense competition from domestic and foreign brands, rising promotion costs and shrinking profits.

Store based retailers are suffering from an over saturation of retailing. Small retailers are succumbing to growing power of Giant retailers and category killers. Store based retailers are suffering from competition from catalog houses, Direct mail firms, TV direct to customer ads, Telemarketing, Tele-shopping etc. Company Response and Adjustments Here are some current trends 1. Reengineering: Focusing on Functional departments to reorganize the key business processes, each managed by multidiscipline teams 2. Outsourcing: From making everything inside to buying more goods and services outside, to obtain them cheaper and better.

Few companies are outsourcing everything making them Virtual companies owning very few assets and therefore extraordinary rates of return 3. E-Commerce: Making all products available on the Internet. Customers can now shop online from different vendors, have access to a lot of Pricing and Quality and Variety information. Benchmarking: Adopting the best practices of World Class performers 5. Alliances: Network of partners 6. Partner-Suppliers: From many suppliers to a few reliable suppliers who work more closely in Partnership relationships with the company 7.

Market-Centred: From organized around the product to organized around the Market segment 8. Global and Local: From being local to being Globally local and locally Global 9. Decentralized: More intrepreneurship at the local level Marketer responses and adjustments: 1. The rule 2. Customer Lifetime value: From making a profit on each sale to making Profits by managing Customer Lifetime value. Customer Share: From focusing on gaining on Market Share to focusing on gaining Customer Mindshare by selling a large variety of goods and services, training employees to do Cross-selling and Up-selling 4.

Target Marketing: From selling to everyone to serving better well defined market segments 5. Individualization: From selling the same offer in the same way in the target market to individualization and Customization. Customers designing their own products on the web pages and all 6. Integrated Marketing Communication: From relying on one communication tool like advertising and Promotion to blending several tools to deliver a consistent brand image to customers at every brand contact 8.

Channels as Partners: From thinking of intermediaries as Customers to treating them as Partners in delivering value 9. Every Employee as a Marketer Four methods of tracking customer satisfaction: 1. Feedback and Suggestion Forms 2. Customer Surveys 3. Ghost shopping 4. Processes β€” The trick lies in overcoming the problems posed by departmental organization. The successful companies are those which achieve excellent capabilities in managing core business process through cross β€” functional teams.

Core processes here could be new-prod development, customer attraction, order fulfillment, etc Resources β€” The major businesses are nowadays trying to own and nurture only their respective core resources and competences, while out sourcing the rest of the processes. Companies are paying increasing focus on their core competences and distinctive capabilities. One should go in for outsourcing, if through outsourcing, 1.

If resources are less critical Core competence has 3 characteristics 1. Difficult for competitors to imitate 2. Source of competitive advantage if it makes significant contribution to perceived customer benefits 3. Potential breadth of application to a wide variety of markets Set strategies to satisfy key stakeholders Stakeholders By improving critical biz processes Processes And aligning resources and organization Resources and Organisation Organization and Organizational Culture β€” According to the article Built to Last, there are 3 commonalities amongst the visionary companies β€” 1. They all held a core value system from which they did not deviate 2. They expressed their purpose in enlightened terms 3.

They have developed a vision for their future and they strive towards it. They communicated it to their employees and embrace a higher purpose beyond making money Senior mgmt must encourage fresh ideas from 3 grps wrt strategy making a. Employees with youthful perspectives b. Lead generation β€” to generate leads, the company develops ads and places them in media that will reach new prospects; its sales person participate in trade shows where they might find new leads and so on.

All this produces a list of suspects. Lead qualification β€” the next task is to qualify which of the suspects are really good prospects, and this is done by interviewing them, checking for there financials, and so on. The prospects may be graded as hot warm and cool. The sales people first contact the hot prospects and work on account conversion, which involves making presentations, answering objections and negotiating final terms.

Computing cost of lost customers β€” Too many companies suffer from high customer churn namely they gain new customer only to lose many of them. Today companies must pay closer attention to their customer defection rate the rate at which they lose customer. The steps involved here are 1. A company must define and measure retention rate 2. The company must distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better. Not much can be done for customer who leave the region or go out of business but much can be done about the customer who leaves because of poor service shoddy products or high prices.

The company needs to examine the percentages of customer who defect for these reasons. Third, the company needs to estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customer. In case of an individual customer the lost profit is equal to the customers lifetime value that is the present value of the profit stream that the company would have realized if the customer had not defected prematurely. Fourth the company needs to figure out how much it would cost to reduce the defection rate. As long as the cost is less than the lost profit the company should spend the amount to reduce the defection rate.

The key to customer retention is customer satisfaction. Acquiring new customers costs 5 times more than retaining old ones 2. Customer profit rates tend to increase over the lifetime of the customer. The two ways of retaining a customer would be β€” 1. To erect high switching costs customers are less inclined to switch to another supplier when this would involve high capital costs, high search costs, or loss of loyal customer discounts. Deliver high customer satisfaction Relationship marketing β€” The task of creating strong customer loyalty is called Relationship Marketing. There might be defections from any of these levels, in which case, relationship marketing works on customer win-back strategies.

There are 5 different types of levels of investment in customer relationship marketing β€” 1. Basic marketing : the sales person simply sells the product 2. Reactive marketing: the salesperson sells the product and encourages the customer to call if he or she has questions comments or complaints. Accountable marketing: the salesperson phones the customer a short time after the sales to check whether the product is meeting the expectation. Proactive marketing: the company salesperson contacts the customer from time to time with suggestion about the improved product uses or helpful new products.

Partnership marketing: the company works continuously with the customer to discover ways to perform better. There are also certain marketing tools which can be used for added customer satisfaction β€” 1. Adding financial benefits - through frequency marketing programs and club marketing programs. Club membership programs to bond the customer closer to the company can be open to everyone who purchases the product or service, such as frequent flier or frequent diner club, or it can be limited to the affinity group. Adding social benefits β€” developing more social bonds with the customer; help make brand communities; etc. Adding structural ties β€” Supplying customers with special equipment or computer linkages to help them manage their payrolls, inventory, etc.

Customer profitability the ultimate test Ultimately, marketing is the art of attracting and retaining profitable customers. The largest customers who are yielding the most profit. The largest customers demand considerable service and receive the deepest discounts. The smallest customers pay full price and receive minimal service, but the costs of transacting with small customers reduce their profitability.

The mid size customers receive good service and pay nearly full price and are often the most profitable. A company should not pursue and satisfy all customers. Implementing Total Quality Management TQM is an organization wide approach to continuously improving the organizations processes, products and services. This is because higher levels of quality support higher prices while delivering high satisfaction at lower costs. Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

Conformance quality is satisfied if all the units deliver the expected quality. Performance quality, however, is different in that it is based upon the grade. A Mercedes and Hyundai may both deliver Conformance Quality, but Mercedes can be said to deliver higher Performance quality. The main responsibilities of a Marketing Manager are β€” 1. They must participate in formulating strategies and policies designed to give company total quality. They must deliver marketing quality aside production quality. Communicate these requirements to the product designers 3. Ensure customer is trained enough to use the product well 5.

Ensure after sales service and satisfaction 6. Get improvement suggestions from the customers, convey them to respective depts. Formulating a game plan for each of its businesses to achieve long-term objectives. Strategic Planning is done in 4 levels β€” 1. Corporate Strategic Plan β€” It decides what resources to allocate to which business and what businesses to diversify into 2. SBU Plan β€” 4. Defining corporate mission 2.

Establishing SBU 3. Assigning resources to each SBU 4. Planning new businesses, downsizing older ones Defining the Corporate Mission β€” A good mission statement provides employees with a shared sense of purpose, direction and opportunity. A good mission statement has 3 characteristics β€” 1. They focus on a limited number of goals 2. They stress on major policies and values the company wants to honor 3. They define the major competitive scope within which the company will operate. Some of such scopes are : industry scope, products scope, geographical scope, etc Establishing SBUs β€” Companies should define business units in terms of needs, not products.

A business can de defined in terms of three dimensions β€” Customer groups, Customer needs and Technology. Characteristics of an SBU are β€” 1. It is independent in terms of the policies it needs 2. The area of the circle denotes the volume of the business. Question marks 2. Stars 3. Cash cows 4. Dogs After plotting the matrix, the company can judge the health of its portfolio and can take one of the following 4 actions to determine the budget to assign to each SBUβ€” 1.

Build β€” to increase market share, at the expense of short-term earnings, if necessary. Done on dogs 2. Hold β€” to preserve market share. Done on cash cows 3. Harvest β€” to increase short term flow, regardless of long-term effect. This generally diminishes the value of the SBU. Done so that the costs are reduced at a faster rate than the fall in sales. Done on losing cash cows, dogs and question marks 4.

Divest β€” to liquidate the business. For each business the two dimensions are calculated after setting the values for the parameters under each of the two, and then using their weightage. The 9 cells are divided into 3 zones β€” 1. Divest or harvest these. Planning new Businesses, Downsizing old ones β€” The company can try one the following 3 strategies to increase its business β€” 1. Intensive growth β€” a review of whether any opportunities exist for improving the existing business performance. Diversification growth β€” Exploiting opportunities in new businesses. Business Mission β€” Each business unit needs to come up with a mission within the broader company mission. Further, they need to trace trends in these factors then identify which can be their opportunities and weaknesses.

A marketing opportunity is an area of buyer need in which a company can perform profitably. A threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend which, in absence of marketing action would lead to fall in profitability. A company needs to chalk out a strategy for dealing with these threats. Goal Formulation Goals are developed to facilitate the management in planning, implementation and control of achieving the targets. Most businesses pursue a variety of objectives, which should ideally meet the following criteria - the objectives must be placed hierarchically, in decreasing order of priorities - they should be stated quantitatively - the goals should be realistic - the goals should be consistent with each other 4.

Strategic formulation Strategy is the roadmap for achieving the envisaged goals. Such businesses require to be good at engineering, purchasing, manufacturing and distribution. A disadvantage of this strategy is that some other company will eventually emerge with still lower costs. Differentiation β€” here a business aims at achieving superior performance in an important customer area valued by a large chunk of the market. It could strive to be the service leader, the quality leader, the style leader or technology leader. Focus β€” Here a firm concentrates on one or more narrow market segments.

It first identifies such a segment and then pursues either cost leadership or differentiation in them. Strategic Alliances Companies are discovering that to achieve leadership they need to form strategic alliances with domestic or multinational companies that complement or leverage their capabilities and resources. Product or service alliance β€” one company licenses the other to produce its product, or two companies jointly market their complementary product or a new product. Pricing collaboration β€” one more companies join in a special pricing collaboration.

Program formulation After developing the principal strategies, companies must work out detailed supporting programs for them. After formulating the marketing programs, the costs and benefit scenario is calculated. Activity Based Costing should be applied to each program to determine whether the benefits form it outdo the costs. Implementation For the implementation of strategy, McKinsey has come up with a 7-S framework.

The implementation part of this framework consists of - Style : employees should share a common way of thinking and behaving - Skills : these should be in consonance with the strategy - Staff : includes hiring able people, training them and then assigning them to the right jobs - Shared values: employees should share the same guiding values. Feedback and Control A firm needs to constantly track and monitor new developments in the internal and external environment.

For when the marketplace changes, the company will have to rethink the implementations, programs, strategies, or even objectives. But such a sequence could only exist where the supplier calls the shots. In the value delivery sequence there are 3 parts 1. The marketing process consists of analyzing markets, researching and selecting markets, designing marketing strategies, planning marketing programs and organizing, implementing and controlling the marketing effort. Analyzing market opportunities β€” A company should identify long term opportunities given its core competences and market experience.

This needs reliable market research and information systems. Both, the Macro environment, consisting of demographic, socio-cultural, economic, technological, etc forces; and the Microenvironment, consisting of suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers and competitors should be considered. A way to do it is to divide the market into many segments and evaluate the segments to find which segment serves the company best.

Developing marketing strategies β€” After deciding upon the product the company shall have to decide upon the product positioning, then initiate the product development, testing and launching. Also the strategy for the different life stages of the product: introduction, growth, maturity and decline have to be decided. Planning marketing programs β€” It consists of deciding upon the following 1. Marketing expenditure β€” allotting the budget to meeting the marketing objectives, and amongst the products, channels, promotion media and sales areas, and in the marketing mix. Marketing mix- Product β€” Price β€” the company has to decide upon the wholesale, retail pricing, discounts to be offered, allowances, etc.

Place β€” identify, recruit marketing facilitators to supply the products and service to the target market. Promotion β€” Managing the marketing effort β€” This final step includes organizing the marketing resources and then implementing and controlling the marketing plan. Three types of controls may be deployed β€” 1. Annual plan control β€” ensures whether the company is meeting the projections of current sales and profits. Profitability control β€” manages the task of measuring the actual profitability of products, customer groups, trade channels and order sizes; and that of different marketing activities.

Sales dept prepare invoices and transmits copies to various departments. Out of stock items are back ordered. Shipped items are accompanied by shipping to various depts. Most of these are being automated lately. Marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain everyday information about developments in the marketing environment. Steps taken to improve quality of marketing intelligence: 1 Train and motivate sales force 2 Motivate distributors, retailers and other intermediaries 3 Learn about competitors by purchasing products, tradeshows 4 Setup customer advisory panel of largest or important customers 5 purchase information from outside suppliers like AC neilsen 6 Establish marketing information center to collect marketing intelligence Marketing Research is the systematic design and collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings to a specific marketing situation facing the company.

Eg: field service firm does only interviews. Marketing research process Define a problem and research objectives Develop the research plan Collect the information Analyze the information Present the findings The Marketing Research Process Step 1: Define the Problem and Research Objectives Management must not define a problem too broadly or too narrowly. Not all research projects can be specific. Some research is exploratory- its goal is to shed light on the real nature of the problem and to suggest possible solutions or new ideas.

Some research is causal- its purpose is to test a cause-and-effect relationship. For example, would passengers make more calls if the phone were located next to their seat rather than in the aisle near the lavatory? Step 2: Develop the Research Plan This stage calls for developing the most efficient plan for gathering the needed information. The cost of the research plan must be known before it is approved.

Designing a research plan calls for decisions on the data sources, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, and contact methods. Data Sources The researcher can gather secondary data, primary data, or both. Secondary data are data that were collected for another purpose and already exist somewhere. Primary data are data gathered for a specific purpose or for a specific research project. Primary data is costly while secondary data provide a starting point for research and offer the advantages of low cost and ready availability. The WWW is a powerful source of secondary data and can provide information on associations, business information, government information, international information. When the needed data do not exist or are outdated, inaccurate, incomplete, or unreliable, the researcher will have to collect primary data.

Primary data can be collected by individual and group interviews. A customer or prospect database is an organized collection of comprehensive data about individual customers, prospects, or suspects that is current, accessible, and actionable for marketing purposes such as lead generation, lead qualification, sale of a product or service, or maintenance of customer relationships. Data warehousing and data mining techniques are becoming increasingly popular. Companies are using data mining, a set of methods that extracts patterns from large masses of data organized in what is called a data warehouse.

But data mining and data warehousing come with a heavy cost. Research Approaches Primary data can be collected in the following five ways: Observational research: Fresh data can be gathered by observing the relevant actors and settings. The American Airlines researchers might meander around airports, airlines offices, and travel agencies to hear how travelers talk about the different carriers. This exploratory research might yield some useful hypotheses about how travelers choose air carriers. Focus-group research: A focus group is a gathering of six to ten people who are invited to spend a few hours with a skilled moderator to discuss a product, service, organization, or other marketing entity.

This is a useful exploratory step. With the development of the WWW, many companies are now conducting on-line focus groups. Survey research: Surveys are best suited for descriptive research. Behavioral data: Customers leave traces of their purchasing behavior in store scanning data, catalog purchase records, and customer databases. Much can be learned by analyzing this data. Experimental research: This is most scientific and captures cause-and-effect relationships.

Respondents are asked to identify with the other and fill in the empty balloon. Thematic Apperception Test TAT A picture is presented and respondents are asked to make up a story about what they think is happening or may happen in the picture. Galvanometers measure the interests emotions aroused by exposure to a specific ad or picture. An audiometer is attached to TV sets in participating homes when the set is on and to which channel it is tuned. A tachistoscope may also help. This is continuation of STEP 2 : Develop the research plan Sampling plan after deciding on the research approach , the marketer researcher needs to draw up a sampling plan. For this he needs to make 3 decisions 1. However technology computers etc are making things easier and enhancing the process of data collection and analysis.

STEP 4 Analyse the information Develop frequency distributions, averages, measures of dispersion etc to analyse the information collected STEP 5 Present the findings Present the main findings to the marketing decision makers. Overcoming barriers to the use of marketing research β€” why companies fail to use it sufficiently or correctly 1. And turns it into basis for mktng action eg brandaid, callplan,detailer etc Diff types of Statistical tools β€” 1. Multiple regression - same as QM 2. Discriminant Analysis - do 3. Factor Analysis β€” technique used to detrmine a few underlying dimensions of a larger set of correlated variables 4. Cluster anal. Markov process Model β€” shows probability to move frm current state to a future state 2. Calculus β€” finds maxima and minima 2.

Mathematicl programming β€” optimization 3. Statistical decision theory β€” concept of decision tree 4. In a defined geog. Area in a defined tie period in a defined mktng environ. There is a min market demand which will occur without any mktng also. As we increase mktng expenditure, demand increases and will stagnate at a point. This is an expansible market. If there is no effect of mktng spending, it is a non-expansible market. Only one level of industry mktng expenditure will occur. The mktng demand corres.

To this level is Mkt Forecast. For a given mktng environment. Company sales forecasts β€” is the level of company sales based on a chosen mktng plan in an assumed mktng environ. Sales quota β€” is the sales goal set for a product line, company division or sales rep. It is used to define and push for sales efforts. Its kept higher than forecasts to give stretch targets. Sales budget β€” is a conservative estimate of the expected vol of sales. Its used for current purchasing,prodn and cashflow decisions.

Company sales potential β€” Is the sales limit approached by company demand as company mktng efforts increase relative to competitors. Max is market potential. Estimation of Demand Total market potential - Broadly 2 ways 1. Multiply potential no of buyers with the avg qty purchased and the price 2. Chain ratio method β€” Multiplying a base no by several adjusting percentages. Both essentially the same. They start with the population and keep reducing with assumed percentages w.

Total market potential It is the maximum amount of sales that might be available to all the firms in the industry during a given period under a given level of industry marketing effort and given environmental conditions. A common way to estimate total market potential as follows: Estimate the potential no. A variation on this method is the chain ratio method.

It involves multiplying a base number by several adjusting percentages. Area market potential Companies need to measure the market potentials of different cities, states and nations. Two major methods of assessing market potentials are: the market build up method, which is used primarily by business marketers, and the multiple factor index method which is used primarily by consumer marketers.

Market build up method: It calls for identifying all the potential buyers in each market and estimating their potential purchases. This method gives us accurate results if we have a list of all potential buyers and a good estimate of what they buy. Multiple factor index method: Like business marketers even consumer marketers also have to estimate the area market potentials.

But the consumers of consumer companies are too numerous to be listed. Thus the most common method is the straightforward index method. Industry sales and Market shares. Identifying competitors and estimating their sales do this. The industry trade association will often collect and publish total industry sales, using this information each company can evaluate its performance against the whole industry. Another way to estimate is to buy reports from a marketing research that audits total sales and brand sales. These audits can give a company valuable information about its total product its total product category sales and its brand sales. Business marketers have typically harder time in estimating sales than consumer goods manufacturers do.

In most markets total demand and company demand are not stable. The unstable the demand the more critical is forecast accuracy and the more elaborate is forecasting procedure. A three-stage procedure is used to prepare a sales forecast. They prepare a macro economic forecast, followed by a industry forecast then by a company sales forecast. Firms develop their forecasts internally and externally as: Market research firms, specialized forecasting firms and futurist research firms. All forecasts r built on three information bases : what people say, what people do and what people have done. Survey of buyers intentions Forecasting is the art of anticipating what buyers r likely to do under a given sat of conditions. The survey looks inquires into the purchase intentions of consumer, their present and future personal finances and their expectations about the economy.

This can be analysed and major shifts in consumer preferences can be anticipated and production schedules and marketing plans changed accordingly. Composite of sales force opinions. Where buyer interviewing is impractical there companies ask their salespersons to estimate their future sales. To encourage better estimating the company could supply certain aids or incentives to sales force. But some sales reps may use their for ther advantage llike setting smaller forecasts forlow targets and sometimes they r not aware of the recent major economic developments.

Expert opinion Companies also obtain forecasts from experts including dealers,distributors,suppliers marketing consultantsa and trade associations. Dealer estimates r subject to the same merits and demerits of sales reps estimates. Past sales analysis Sales forecasting is also done on the basis of past sales. Time series analysis breaking down the the past data into trend,cycle,seasonal and erratic ,exponential smoothing combining the past sales and recent ones by giving more weight to the latter ,statistical demand analysis impact level of each set of casual factors eg…income, price, marketing expenditure etc… and economic analysis. They recognize that environment is constantly spinning new opportunities and threats and understand the importance continuously monitoring the and adapting to the environment.

They must be trend trackers and opportunity seekers. Marketers have 2 advantages. Analyzing Needs and trends in the macro environment Successful companies recognize trend and respond profitably to unmet needs and demands. Trends, and megatrends. A fad is unpredictable, short and without social, economic and political significance Trends are more predictable and durable. It reveals the shape of the future β€” has longevity, is observable across several market areas and consumer activities, and is consistent with significant indicators occurring or emerging at the same time.

Megatrends have large social economic political and economical changes that are slow to form, and once in place they influence us for some time A new product is more likely to be success if it is in line with the strong trends than otherwise. Identifying and responding to the major macroeconomic forces. Companies and their suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, competitors and public all operate in a macroeconomic environment of forces and trends that shape opportunities and pose threats. In the economic arena, companies and consumers are increasingly affected by global forces. Demographic environment: The first macroeconomic forces that the marketer monitors is the population because people make up the markets.

Marketers are keenly interested in the size and growth rate of population in different cities, regions, and nations, age distribution and ethnic mix, educational levels, house hold patterns and regional characteristics and movements. World population growth. Also population is a concern because population growth is maximum in countries whch can least afford it. A explosive population growth has major impact on business.

It does not mean growing markets unless these markets have sufficient purchasing power. Nonetheless companies that carefully analyze their markets can find major opportunities. Population Age Mix Population vary in their age mix. Each group has certain specific wants and buying habits. Marketers must be careful not to overgeneralize about ethnic groups. Educational Groups The population in any society falls into 5 educational groups : illieterates, high school, dropouts, high school degrees, college degrees, and professional degrees. Geographical shifts in population This is a period of great migratory movement between and within countries. Population movement also occurs as people migrate from rural to urban areas and then to suburban areas. Location makes a difference in goods and service preferences.

Shift from Mass market to Micromarkets The effect of all this is fragmentation of the mass market into numerous micromarkets differentiated by age, sex, ethnic background, education, geography, lifestyle and other characteristics. Each group has strong preferences and is reached through increasingly targeted communication and distribution channels. Demographic trends are highly reliable for the short and intermediate run. The Singer Company should have known for years that its sewing machine would be hurt by smaller families and more working wives, and yet it was slow in responding. In contrast, think of the rewards marketers reap when they focus on a demographic environment. Some marketers are actively courting the home office segment of the lucrative SOHO market.

Nearly 40 million Americans are working out of their with the help of electronic conveniences like cell phones, fax machines, and handheld organizers. Economic Environment: Markets require purchasing power as well as people. The available purchasing power in an economy depends on current income, prices, debt, savings, and credit availability. Marketers must pay close attention to major trends in income and consumer-spending patterns. Income Distribution: Nations vary in level and distribution of income and industrial structure. There are four types of industrial structures: 1. Subsistence economies: Majority of people engage in simple agriculture, consume most of their output and barter the rest for simple goods and services.

These economies offer few opportunities for marketers. Raw-material-exporting economies: Economies rich in one or more natural resources but poor in other aspects. Much of their revenue comes from exporting these resources. Depending on the number of foreign residents and wealthy native rulers and landlords, they are also a market for Western-style commodities and luxury goods. Industrializing economies: Manufacturing accounts for 10 to 20 percent of GDP. Examples include Egypt, India and Philippines. As manufacturing increases, the country relies more on imports of raw materials, steel, and heavy machinery and less on imports of finished textiles, paper products, and processed foods.

Industrialization creates a new rich class and a small but growing middle class, both demanding new types of goods. Industrial economies: Major exporters of manufactured goods and investment funds. They buy manufactured goods from another and also export them to other types of economies in exchange for raw materials and semifinished goods. The large and varied manufacturing activities of these nations and their sizable middle class make them rich markets for all sorts of goods. Marketers often distinguish countries with five different income-distribution patterns: very low incomes; mostly low incomes; very low, very high incomes; low, medium, high incomes; mostly medium incomes. Since , the wealthiest fifth of the U. According to the Census Bureau Statisticians, the s have seen a greater polarization of the income in the United States than at any point since the end of World War 2.

This is leading to a 2-tier U. Conventional retailers who offer medium-price goods are most vulnerable to these changes. Companies that respond to the trend by tailoring their products and pitches to these two very different Americas stand to gain a lot. Examples: 1. Both chains are thriving. The downscaled Pooh sells at Wal-Mart and other discount stores.

Savings, Debt and Credit Availability Consumer expenditures are affected by consumer savings, debt, and credit availability. Japanese save about The result is that Japanese banks were able to loan money to Japanese companies at a much lower interest rate than the U. Hence, Japanese companies expanded faster. Credit is available in the U. Marketers must pay attention to major changes in incomes, cost o living, interest rates, savings, and borrowing patterns because they can have a high impact on business, especially for companies whose products have high income and price sensitivity. Natural Environment: The deterioration of the natural environment is a major global concern. In many cities, air, chemical and water pollution have reached dangerous levels.

In the U. Steel companies and public utilities have had to invest billions of dollars in pollution- control equipment and more environmentally friendly fuels. The auto industry has had to introduce expensive emission control in cars. Marketers need to be aware of the threats and opportunities associated with four trends in the natural environment: the shortage of raw materials, the increased cost of energy, increased pollution levels, and changing roles of governments. Infinite resources such as water and air pose no immediate problem. Environmental groups have lobbied for a ban on certain propellants used in aerosol cans because of the potential damage they can cause to the ozone layer. Water shortages and pollution are already major problems in some parts of the world.

Finite renewable resources like forests and food must be used wisely. Forestry companies are required to reforest timberlands in order to protect the soil and to ensure sufficient wood to meet future demand. Because the amount of arable land is fixed and the urban areas are constantly encroaching on farmland, food supply can also be a problem. Finite non-renewable resources-oil, coal, platinum, zinc, silver- will pose a serious problem as the point of depletion approaches.

Firms making products that require these increasingly scarce minerals face substantial cost increases. They may not find it easy to pass these cost increases on to customers. Increased Energy Costs One finite nonrenewable resource, oil , has created serious problems for the world economy. Coal became popular again and companies searched for practical means to harness solar, nuclear, wind, and other forms of energy.

In the solar energy field alone, hundreds of firms introduced first generation products to harness solar energy for heating homes and other uses. Other firms searched for ways to make a practical electric automobile, with a practical electric automobile, with a potential prize of billions for the winner. The development of alternative sources of energy and more efficient ways to use energy and the weakening of the oil cartel led to a subsequent decline in oil prices. Lower prices had an adverse effect on the oil exploration industry but considerably improved the income of oil using industries and consumers.

In the mean time, the search continues for alternative sources of energy. Increased Pollution Levels Some industrial activity will inevitably damage the natural environment. Consider the dangerous mercury levels in the ocean, the quantity of DDT and other chemical pollutants in the soil and food supply, and the littering of the environment with bottles, plastics, and other packaging materials.

Research has shown that about 42 percent of U. This willingness creates a large market for pollution control solutions such as scrubbers recycling centers and landfill systems. It leads to a search for alternative ways to produce and package goods. Smart companies are initiating environment friendly moves to show their concern. New concern over the toxic nature of dry cleaning solvents has opened up opportunities for a new breed of green cleaners although theses new businesses for an uphill battle. For example, the german government is vigorous in its pursuit of environmental quality, partly because of the strong green movement in germany and partly because of the ecological devastation in the former east germany. Many poor nations are doing little about pollution largely because they lack the funds or the political will.

A New Guard of Green Cleaners Vies for Concerned Customers You need to get your business suit cleaned for a sales conference in Miami, and your flight leaves in 24 hours. Are you going to go to the dry cleaner on the corner, which uses environmentally damaging, possibly carcinogenic chemicals? Or are you going to go across town and use a wet cleaner, who will get your clothes clean without damaging you or the environment and make them smell a lot less toxic?

If you are like most consumers, you will choose convenience and the quick fix over concerns about health and environment. Percloroethylene, or perc the solvent used by the majority of dry cleaners, has been labeled a probable human carcinogen by the EPA. More conclusive reports on its damaging effects are expected soon. In a survey of 30 dry cleaners in suburban Pittsburgh, Dan Kovacks asked customers to their will being, Unable to think up alternatives most said they would just get clothes dry cleaned less frequently. Yet a new guard of environmentally friendly dry cleaners is willing to bet that consumers will choose green over toxic if green alternatives are readily available.

There are already dry cleaning stores using alternative cleaning materials. A much smaller group of stores are wet cleaners going back to soap and water basics. All the alternatives with names such as cleaner by nature, eco mat and greener cleaner are price competitive with their toxic counterparts. Cleaner by nature which opened up smack between two traditional dry cleaners in Denver broke even only six months after opening. Its owner Chris comfort plans a second store in boulder. Although dry cleaners are the quintessential small business, the green cleaning trend could open up opportunities for giant multinational corporations. Exxon corporation has come up with a new petroleum solvent called DF which is widely used in Europe.

Hughes environmental systems, a unit of Rayteon corporation and global technologies, Inc, of el Segundo California have teamed up to market a new method for cleaning clothes using liquid carbon dioxide. Procter and gamble has introduced a perc free alternative for home use, Dryel, which allows people to do their dry cleaning at home. Technology has released such wonders as penicillin, open heart surgery and the birth control pill. It has released such horrors as the hydrogen bomb, nerve gas and the submachine gun. It has also released such mixed blessings as the automobile and video games. Every new technology is a force for creative destruction. Transistors hurt the vacuum tube industry xerography hurt the carbon paper business autos hurt the railroads and television hurt newspapers.

Instead of moving into the new technologies many old industries fought or ignored them and their businesses declined. Unfortunately, technological discoveries do not arise evenly through time the rail road industry created a lot of investment and then investment petered out until the auto industry emerged. Later, radio created a lot of investment, which then petered out until television appeared. In the time between major innovations the economy can stagnate. In the mean time, minor innovations fill the gap: freeze dried coffee, combination shampoo and conditioner antiperspirant deodorants and the like. Minor innovations involve less risk but critics argue that today too much research effort is going into producing minor improvements rather than major breakthroughs.

New technology creates major long run consequences that are not always foreseeable. The contraceptive pill led to smaller families more working wives and larger discretionary incomes β€” resulting in higher expenditures on vacation travel, durable goods and luxury items. John Kennedy did not know personal computers digital wristwatches video recorders or fax machines. More ideas are being worked on the time lag between new ideas and their successful implementation is decreasing rapidly; and the time between introduction and peak production is shortening considerably.

Ninety percent of all the scientist who ever lived are alive today and technology feeds upon itself. The advent of personal computers and fax has made it possible for people to telecommute that is work at home instead of traveling to offices that may be 30 or more minutes away. Some hope that this trend will reduce auto pollution bring the family closer together and create more home centered entertainment and activity. It will also have substantial impact on shopping behavior and marketing performance.

Unlimited Opportunities for innovation Scientists today are working on a startling range of new technologies that will revolutionize products and production processes. Some of the most exciting work is being done in biotechnology, solid-state electronics robotics and materials sciences. Researchers are working on AIDS cures, happiness pills, painkillers totally safe contraceptives and non-fattening foods. They are designing robots for firefighting, underwater exploration and home nursing. In addition scientists also work on fantasy products such as small flying cars three dimensional television, and space colonies.

The challenge in each case is not only technical but also commercial to develop affordable versions of these products. Companies are already harnessing the power of virtual reality the combination of technologies that allows users to experience three dimensional computer generated environments through sound, sight and touch. Virtual reality has already been applied to gathering consumer reactions to new automobile designs, kitchen layouts, exterior home designs, and other potential offerings. There is a need to transfer more of this money into research on material science, biotechnology, and micro mechanics. Many companies are content to put their money into copying competitors products and making minor feature and style improvements.

Even basic research companies such as Dupont bell laboratories and Pfizer are proceeding cautiously. Much of the research is defensive than offensive. And increasingly research directed toward major breakthroughs is being conducted by consortiums of companies rather than by single companies. Increased Regulation of Technological change As products become more complex the public needs to be assured of their safety. Consequently government agencies powers to investigate and ban potentially unsafe products have been expanded. In the US the federal food and drug administration must approve all drugs before they can be sold. Safety and health regulations have also increased in the areas of food, automobiles, clothing, electrical appliances and construction.

Marketers must be aware of these regulations when proposing developing and launching new products. This environment is composed of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals. Sometimes these laws also create new opportunities for business. Mandatory recycling laws have given the recycling industry a major boost and spurred the creation of dozens of new companies making new products from recycled materials: Wellman β€” in , Wellman introduced Ecospun post consumer recycled fiber PCR , made from recycled soda bottles and sold pounds in that first year alone.

At the outdoor retailer winter market in , wellman introduced its new EcoSpun squared fiber, which has moisture- management properties and was designed specifically for a performance apparel market anxious to jump aboard the recycling bandwagon. Laws have been on an increase over the years. Example being: Norway bans several types of sales promotion-trading stamps, contests, premiums-as unfair instruments In India food companies special permission to launch brands that duplicate what already exists in the market Central concern: At what point of time do the costs of regulation exceed the benefits? Each law may have legitimate rationale but may sap initiative and retard economic growth.

Marketers must have good knowledge of the major laws protecting competition, consumers and society. Companies generally establish legal review procedures and promulgate ethical standards to guide their marketing standards. As more and more business takes place in cyberspace marketers must establish new parameters for doing business ethically. America Online has been highly successful but has lost millions due to consumer complaints regarding unethical marketing tactics. In America Online agrees to pay 2. Companies have established departments to deal with such groups.

Important force affecting business β€” Consumerist movement Organized movement to strengthen rights and powers of buyers in relation to sellers. Companies in turn have set up consumer affairs departments to help formulate policies and respond to consumer complaints. Whirlpool Corporation is one of the companies to have established toll free numbers for its consumers. These groups have put more restraints on marketers. Marketers have to clear their plans with the legal, public relations, consumer affairs and public affairs departments.

They bought dream cars, dream vacations etc. Today, people are more conservative in behaviors and ambitions. More cautious and value driven. Views of others: People are concerned more about homeless, crime and other social problems. These trends portend a growing market for social support products and services that promote direct relations between human beings such as health clubs, cruises and religious activity. Television, chat rooms on the Internet, video games. Views of organizations: People vary in their attitudes towards organizations They are willing to work for them in spite of being critical about them There has been overall decline in organizational loyalty People see work as a chore required for money and not as a source of satisfaction This outlook has several marketing implications: Companies need to find new ways of generating employee and customer confidence.

Need to make sure that they are good corporate citizens and that their consumer messages are honest. Hence companies are turning to social audits and public relations to improve their image. They recognize that it can be destroyed by human activities. Love of nature leading to camping, boating, fishing etc. Church attendance has fallen steadily.

K-pop groups Sympathetic Impressions Of Queen Mary Of The Scots been regularly Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America of cultural appropriation of cultures such as Opal Palmer Adisa cultureespecially due to the frequent use of cornrows Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America bandanas in idol groups' on-stage styling. They also performed in Las Vegas. In increasingly fast-paced markets, Personal Narrative-My Rollercoaster and technology are not enough. We'll Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. They assume that buyers admire well-made products Summary: The Emergence Of Cultural Hierarchy In America can appraise quality and performance. September 13,

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