⚡ Caroline Forbs: A Short Story
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Caroline Forbes Story
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Invasive species might alter their environment by releasing chemical compounds, modifying abiotic factors, or affecting the behaviour of herbivores , creating a positive or negative impact on other species. Some species, like Kalanchoe daigremontana , produce allelopathic compounds , that might have an inhibitory effect on competing species, and influence some soil processes like carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Other examples are Centaurea solstitialis yellow starthistle and Centaurea diffusa diffuse knapweed. These Eastern European noxious weeds have spread through the western and West Coast states.
Experiments show that 8-hydroxyquinoline , a chemical produced at the root of C. Such co-evolved native plants have also evolved defenses. Success or lack of success in one habitat does not necessarily imply success in others. Conversely, examining habitats in which a species is less successful can reveal novel weapons to defeat invasiveness. Changes in fire regimens are another form of facilitation. Bromus tectorum , originally from Eurasia, is highly fire-adapted. It not only spreads rapidly after burning but also increases the frequency and intensity heat of fires by providing large amounts of dry detritus during the fire season in western North America.
In areas where it is widespread, it has altered the local fire regimen so much that native plants cannot survive the frequent fires, allowing B. Ecological facilitation also occurs where one species physically modifies a habitat in ways that are advantageous to other species. For example, zebra mussels increase habitat complexity on lake floors, providing crevices in which invertebrates live.
This increase in complexity, together with the nutrition provided by the waste products of mussel filter-feeding , increases the density and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities. Studies of invasive species have shown that introduced species have great potential for rapid adaptation. This explains how many introduced species are able to establish and become invasive in new environments. In addition, the rate at which an invasive species can spread can be difficult to ascertain by biologists since population growth occurs geometrically, rather than linearly.
This conversion can actually lead to increased variance in the founding populations which then allows for rapid adaptive evolution. Adaptation then proceeds to respond to the selective pressures of the new environment. These responses would most likely be due to temperature and climate change , or the presence of native species whether it be predator or prey. Rapid adaptive evolution in these species leads to offspring that have higher fitness and are better suited for their environment. Intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, pre-adaptation and post-introduction evolution are all major factors in adaptive evolution. This is key in adaptive evolution because the main goal is how to best be suited to the ecosystem to which the species has been introduced.
The ability to accomplish this as quickly as possible will lead to a population with a very high fitness. Pre-adaptations and evolution after the initial introduction also play a role in the success of the introduced species. If the species has adapted to a similar ecosystem or contains traits that happen to be well suited to the area where it is introduced, it is more likely to fare better in the new environment. This, in addition to evolution that takes place after introduction, all determine if the species will be able to become established in the new ecosystem and if it will reproduce and thrive.
The enemy-release hypothesis states that the process of evolution has led to every ecosystem having an ecological balance. Any one species cannot occupy a majority of the ecosystem due to the presences of competitors, predators, and diseases. Introduced species moved to a novel habitat can become invasive when these controls - competitors, predators, and diseases - do not exist in the new ecosystem. The absence of appropriate controls leads to rapid population growth. Non-native species have many vectors , including biogenic vectors, but most invasions are associated with human activity. Natural range extensions are common in many species, but the rate and magnitude of human-mediated extensions in these species tend to be much larger than natural extensions, and humans typically carry specimens greater distances than natural forces.
An early human vector occurred when prehistoric humans introduced the Pacific rat Rattus exulans to Polynesia. Vectors include plants or seeds imported for horticulture. The pet trade moves animals across borders, where they can escape and become invasive. Organisms stow away on transport vehicles. Among professionals in invasion biology, the overwhelming consensus is that incidental human assisted transfer is the main cause of introductions - other than for polar regions. The arrival of invasive propagules to a new site is a function of the site's invasibility.
Species have also been introduced intentionally. For example, to feel more "at home," American colonists formed "Acclimation Societies" that repeatedly imported birds that were native to Europe to North America and other distant lands. In , U. Agricultural Research Service entomologists identified them as the rhinoceros beetle , Hercules beetle , and king stag beetle.
To prevent exotic species from becoming a problem in the U. Many invasive species, once they are dominant in the area, are essential to the ecosystem of that area. If they are removed from the location it could be harmful to that area. Economics plays a major role in exotic species introduction. High demand for the valuable Chinese mitten crab is one explanation for the possible intentional release of the species in foreign waters.
The development of maritime trade has rapidly affected the way marine organisms are transported within the ocean. Two ways marine organisms are transported to new environments are hull fouling and ballast water transport. In fact, Molnar et al. Many marine organisms have the capacity to attach themselves to vessel hulls. Therefore, these organisms are easily transported from one body of water to another and are a significant risk factor for a biological invasion event. However, the governments of California and New Zealand have announced more stringent control for vessel hull fouling within their respective jurisdictions. The other main vector for the transport of non-native aquatic species is ballast water.
Ballast water taken up at sea and released in port by transoceanic vessels is the largest vector for non-native aquatic species invasions. For example, freshwater zebra mussels , native to the Black , Caspian and Azov seas , most likely reached the Great Lakes via ballast water from a transoceanic vessel. Although the zebra mussel invasion was first noted in , and a mitigation plan was successfully implemented shortly thereafter, the plan had a serious flaw or loophole , whereby ships loaded with cargo when they reached the Seaway were not tested because their ballast water tanks were empty.
However, even in an empty ballast tank, there remains a puddle of water filled with organisms that could be released at the next port when the tank is filled with water after unloading the cargo, the ship takes on ballast water which mixes with the puddles and then everything including the living organisms in the puddles is discharged at the next port. Even though ballast water regulations are in place to protect against potentially invasive species, there exists a loophole for organisms in the 10—50 micron size class. For organisms between 10 and 50 microns, such as certain types of phytoplankton , current regulations allow less than 10 cells per milliliter be present in discharge from treatment systems.
Since many species of phytoplankton are less than 10 microns in size and reproduce asexually , only one cell released into the environment could exponentially grow into many thousands of cells over a short amount of time. This loophole could have detrimental effects to the environment. For example, some species in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are smaller than 10 microns in width and contain domoic acid , a neurotoxin. If toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Another important factor to consider about marine invasive species is the role of environmental changes associated with climate change , such as an increase in ocean temperature. There have been multiple studies suggesting an increase in ocean temperature will cause range shifts in organisms,   which could have detrimental effects on the environment as new species interactions emerge.
Their results suggest that heat challenges organisms face during transport may enhance the stress tolerance of species in their non-native range by selecting for genetically adapted genotypes that will survive a second applied heat stress, such as increased ocean temperature in the founder population. Invasive species often exploit disturbances to an ecosystem wildfires , roads , foot trails to colonize an area. Large wildfires can sterilize soils, while adding a variety of nutrients.
In such circumstances, plants that can regenerate from their roots have an advantage. Non-natives with this ability can benefit from a low intensity fire burn that removes surface vegetation , leaving natives that rely on seeds for propagation to find their niches occupied when their seeds finally sprout. Wildfires often occur in remote areas, needing fire suppression crews to travel through pristine forest to reach the site. The crews can bring invasive seeds with them. If any of these stowaway seeds become established, a thriving colony of invasives can erupt in as few as six weeks, after which controlling the outbreak can need years of continued attention to prevent further spread.
Also, disturbing the soil surface, such as cutting firebreaks, destroys native cover, exposes soil, and can accelerate invasions. In suburban and wildland-urban interface areas, the vegetation clearance and brush removal ordinances of municipalities for defensible space can result in excessive removal of native shrubs and perennials that exposes the soil to more light and less competition for invasive plant species. Fire suppression vehicles are often major culprits in such outbreaks, as the vehicles are often driven on back roads overgrown with invasive plant species.
The undercarriage of the vehicle becomes a prime vessel of transport. In response, on large fires, washing stations "decontaminate" vehicles before engaging in suppression activities. Invasive species can affect the invaded habitats and bioregions adversely, causing ecological, environmental, or economic damage. The European Union defines "Invasive Alien Species" as those that are, firstly, outside their natural distribution area, and secondly, threaten biological diversity.
Invasive species may drive local native species to extinction via competitive exclusion, niche displacement, or hybridisation with related native species. Therefore, besides their economic ramifications, alien invasions may result in extensive changes in the structure, composition and global distribution of the biota at sites of introduction, leading ultimately to the homogenisation of the world's fauna and flora and the loss of biodiversity.
Although evidence is strong that the recent extinction of about 90 amphibian species can be traced to the chytrid fungus spread by international trade,  most scientific research has focused on animal invaders. Concern over the impacts of invasive species on biodiversity typically weighs the actual evidence either ecological or economic in relation to the potential risk. Land clearing and human habitation put significant pressure on local species. Disturbed habitats are prone to invasions that can have adverse effects on local ecosystems, changing ecosystem functions. Multiple successive introductions of different non-native species can have interactive effects; the introduction of a second non-native species can enable the first invasive species to flourish.
Examples of this are the introductions of the amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma and the European green crab Carcinus maenas. It had been found in small quantities in the harbor but had never displaced the native clam species Nutricola spp. In the mids, the introduction of the European green crab, found to prey preferentially on the native clams, resulted in a decline of the native clams and an increase of the introduced clam populations.
Invasive species can change the functions of ecosystems. For example, invasive plants can alter the fire regime cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum , nutrient cycling smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora , and hydrology Tamarix in native ecosystems. Harmful effects of hybridization have led to a decline and even extinction of native species. The unintentional introduction of forest pest species and plant pathogens can change forest ecology and damage the timber industry. Overall, forest ecosystems in the U. The Asian long-horned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis was first introduced into the U.
As of thirty million dollars had been spent in attempts to eradicate this pest and protect millions of trees in the affected regions. The characteristics of garlic mustard are slightly different from those of the surrounding native plants, which results in a highly successful species that is altering the composition and function of the native communities it invades. When garlic mustard invades the understory of a forest, it affects the growth rate of tree seedlings, which is likely to alter forest regeneration of impact forest composition in the future.
Native species can be threatened with extinction  through the process of genetic pollution. Genetic pollution is unintentional hybridization and introgression , which leads to homogenization or replacement of local genotypes as a result of either a numerical or fitness advantage of the introduced species. Invading species have been shown to adapt to their new environments in a remarkably short amount of time. Hybrids resulting from invasive species interbreeding with native species can incorporate their genotypes into the gene pool over time through introgression. Similarly, in some instances a small invading population can threaten much larger native populations. For example, Spartina alterniflora was introduced in the San Francisco Bay and hybridized with native Spartina foliosa.
The higher pollen count and male fitness of the invading species resulted in introgression that threatened the native populations due to lower pollen counts and lower viability of the native species. Some degree of gene flow is normal, and preserves constellations of genes and genotypes. Invasive species and accompanying control efforts can have long term public health implications. For instance, pesticides applied to treat a particular pest species could pollute soil and surface water. Introduced birds e. Throughout recorded history, epidemics of human diseases, such as malaria , yellow fever , typhus , and bubonic plague , spread via these vectors.
In South Africa's Cape Town region, analysis demonstrated that the restoration of priority source water sub-catchments through the removal of thirsty alien plant invasions i. Australian acacias, pines and eucalyptus, Australian black wattle, These annual gains will double within 30 years. Globally, 1. For example, in the Great Lakes Region the sea lamprey is an invasive species that acts as a predator. In its original habitat, the sea lamprey used co-evolution to act as a parasite without killing the host organism. However, in the Great Lakes Region, this co-evolutionary link is absent, so the sea lamprey acts as a predator and can consume up to 40 pounds of fish in its 12—18 month feeding period.
The sea lampreys' destructive effects on large fish negatively affect the fishing industry and have helped cause the collapse of the population of some species. Economic costs from invasive species can be separated into direct costs through production loss in agriculture and forestry, and management costs. Estimated damage and control cost of invasive species in the U. It is often argued that the key to reducing the costs of invasive species damage and management is early detection and rapid response,  meaning that incurring an initial cost of searching for and finding an invasive species and quickly controlling it, while the population is small, is less expensive than managing the invasive population when it is widespread and already causing damage.
However, an intense search for the invader is only important to reduce costs in cases where the invasive species is 1 not frequently reintroduced into the managed area and 2 cost effective to search for and find. Weeds reduce yield in agriculture, though they may provide essential nutrients. Some deep-rooted weeds can "mine" nutrients see dynamic accumulator from the subsoil and deposit them on the topsoil, while others provide habitat for beneficial insects or provide foods for pest species. Many weed species are accidental introductions that accompany seeds and imported plant material. Many introduced weeds in pastures compete with native forage plants, threaten young cattle e. Introduced rats Rattus rattus and R.
Invasive plant pathogens and insect vectors for plant diseases can also suppress agricultural yields and nursery stock. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the invasive Asian citrus psyllid ACP. Because of the impacts of this disease on citrus crops, citrus is under quarantine and highly regulated in areas where ACP has been found. Invasive species can impact outdoor recreation, such as fishing, hunting , hiking , wildlife viewing , and water-based activities.
They can damage a wide array of environmental services that are important to recreation, including, but not limited to, water quality and quantity , plant and animal diversity, and species abundance. Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum in parts of the US, fill lakes with plants complicating fishing and boating. These estimates are very conservative. Italy is one of the most invaded countries in Europe , with an estimate of more than 3, alien species.
The impacts of invasive alien species on the economy has been wide-ranging, from management costs, to loss of crops, to infrastructure damage. However, only 15 recorded species have more reliably estimated costs, hence the actual cost may be much larger than the aforementioned sum. France has an estimated minimum of 2, introduced and invasive alien species. Renault et al. Damage costs were nearly eight times higher than management expenditure. Insects, and in particular the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti , totalled very high economic costs, followed by non-graminoid terrestrial flowering and aquatic plants Ambrosia artemisiifolia , Ludwigia sp.
However, no reports does not mean that there are no negative consequences and thus no costs. Invasive species have the potential to provide a suitable habitat or food source for other organisms. In areas where a native has become extinct or reached a point that it cannot be restored, non-native species can fill their role. Examples of this are:. The second way that non-native species can be beneficial is that they act as catalysts for restoration. This is because the presence of non-native species increases the heterogeneity and biodiversity in an ecosystem. This increase in heterogeneity can create microclimates in sparse and eroded ecosystems, which then promotes the growth and reestablishment of native species. In Kenya, guava has real potential as a tool in the restoration of tropical forest.
Studies of isolated guava trees in farmland showed that they were extremely attractive to a wide range of fruit-eating birds. In the course of visiting them, birds dropped seeds beneath the guavas, many of them from trees in nearby fragments of rainforest, and many of these seeds germinated and grew into young trees. Surprisingly, distance to the nearest forest did not seem to matter at all — trees up to 2 kilometres 1. Guavas establish easily on degraded land, and each tree is potentially the nucleus of a patch of regenerating rainforest.
Of course, most seedlings that grow beneath guavas are just more guavas, but guava is an early-successional tree that soon dies out when overtopped by bigger trees, nor does it actively invade primary forest. Invasive alien trees can also be useful for restoring native forest. In Puerto Rico, native pioneer trees could cope with natural disturbances such as drought, hurricanes, floods and landslides, but are mostly unable to colonise land that has undergone deforestation, extended agricultural use and eventual abandonment.
In these sites, low-diversity pioneer communities of invasive trees develop, but over time native trees invade. Alien pioneers may dominate for 30 to 40 years but the eventual outcome, after 60 to 80 years, is a diverse mixture of native and alien species, but with a majority of native species. In the absence of the initial alien colonists, abandoned agricultural land tends to become pasture and remain that way almost indefinitely. The last benefit of non-native species is that they provided ecosystem services. A study by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health found the Asian oyster could significantly benefit the bay's deteriorating water quality.
For example, the bee Lasioglossum leucozonium , shown by population genetic analysis to be an invasive species in North America,  has become an important pollinator of caneberry as well as cucurbit , apple trees , and blueberry bushes. The plantain leaves remained green long enough for the caterpillars to survive during dry summers, which seemed to be getting a little drier with the first signs of climate change. In contrast, the native plants they used to eat shriveled up and most of the caterpillars starved or desiccated. With this difference in survival, the butterflies started to evolve a liking for laying their eggs on plantains: the proportion of female butterflies content to lay their eggs on this plant rose from under a third in to three-quarters in A few years later, the switch was complete.
The federally endangered Taylor's checkerspot Euphydryas editha taylori a subspecies of Edith's checkerspot, whose historical habitats have been lost is so reliant on it that conservationists are actively planting plantains out into the wild. To provide a supply of butterflies, prisoners at the Mission Creek Corrections Center for Women in Washington state breed checkerspots in a greenhouse so that they can be released into these new habitats. Odd as it might seem, actively encouraging an alien plant increasing gains is helping to conserve a much-loved native insect reducing losses. Some invasions offer potential commercial benefits. Tattoos Pitbull. Every Body Tattoo: art vagina tattoo sexy women Vagina Tattoo.
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