① Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment

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Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment



In this political treatise, Montesquieu pleaded in favor of a constitutional system of government and the separation of powers, the ending of slavery, the preservation of civil liberties and the law, and the idea that political institutions should reflect the social and geographical aspects of each community. Historians vary in their Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment of the degree to Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment details of the conspiracy were finalized. The meetings with Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment French king were most likely conducted in the company and under the influence of Benjamin Franklin. Dubs, Homer H. Montesquieu covered many topics, including the law, social life, and the study of anthropology, and provided more than 3, commendations. Waldos Diary Entry argues that Paine's analysis of property rights marks a distinct Police Brutality In Todays Society to political theory. Bias Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment academia Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment in the media.

Political Theory: Montesquieu and Rousseau (The Philosophes: Thinkers of the Enlightenment)

Transcending cultural differences and customs is just a small step to achieve that. Online Dating Guide. No matter who you ask, you will get the same answer: dating nowadays is hard. For single expats in Germany, dating is even harder. Online Dating. In a perfect world, you and your soulmate would bump into each other on the streets of Germany, lock eyes, and fall madly in love the next second.

Dating Profile. Is online dating easier for single female expats in Germany than for their male counterparts? Retrieved June 11, — via Newspapers. Stanford University Press. China Internet Information Center. South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 3 April Ahmad, Mirza Tahir n. Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Retrieved 7 November Bonevac, Daniel; Phillips, Stephen Introduction to world philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. Creel, Herrlee Glessner Confucius: The man and the myth.

New York: John Day Company. Dubs, Homer H. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Hobson, John M. The Eastern origins of Western civilisation Reprinted ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chin, Ann-ping New York: Scribner. Archived from the original on 7 July Hunter, Michael Confucius Beyond the Analects. Karlgren, Bernhard []. Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Dover Books. China Economic Net. Kim, Tae Hyun; Csikszentmihalyi, Mark In Olberding, Amy ed. Dao Companion to the Analects.

Knechtges, David R. In Knechtges, David R. Leiden: Brill. Fung, Yiu-ming In Richey, Jeffrey ed. Teaching Confucianism. Oxford University Press. The house of Confucius Translated ed. Legge, James , " Confucius ", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed. VI , pp. Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. Nivison, David Shepherd In Loewe, Michael ; Shaughnessy, Edward eds. The Cambridge History of Ancient China. Parker, John Windows into China: The Jesuits and their books, — Phan, Peter C. Catholicism and interreligious dialogue. Rainey, Lee Dian Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Riegel, Jeffrey K. Riegel, Jeffrey The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Qiu, Jane 13 August Seed Magazine.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 31 May Dao Companion to Classical Confucian Philosophy. Wilkinson, Endymion Chinese History: A New Manual 4th ed. Cambridge, Mass. Yan, Liang 16 February Yao, Xinzhong Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. An Introduction to Confucianism. Zhou, Jing 31 October Clements, Jonathan Confucius: A Biography. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Sutton Publishing. Confucius Lun yu , in English The Analects of Confucius. Translation and notes by Simon Leys. New York: W. Translated by E. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. Original work published c. Confucius and the Chinese Way.

New York: Harper. Chinese Thought from Confucius to Mao Tse-tung. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Csikszentmihalyi, M. In Encyclopedia of Religion Vol. C, pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fingarette, Hebert Confucius : the secular as sacred. Long Grove, Ill. Nylan, Michael and Thomas A. Ssu-ma Ch'ien Records of the Historian. Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang, trans. Hong Kong: Commercial Press. Sterckx, Roel. Chinese Thought. From Confucius to Cook Ding. London: Penguin, Van Norden, B.

Confucius and the Analects: New Essays. ISBN X. Mengzi , in Philip J. Confucius at Wikipedia's sister projects. Links to related articles. Chinese philosophy. Philosophy of language. Index of language articles. Ayer G. Causal theory of reference Contrast theory of meaning Contrastivism Conventionalism Cratylism Deconstruction Descriptivism Direct reference theory Dramatism Dynamic semantics Expressivism Inquisitive semantics Linguistic determinism Mediated reference theory Nominalism Non-cognitivism Phallogocentrism Relevance theory Semantic externalism Semantic holism Situation semantics Structuralism Supposition theory Symbiosism Theological noncognitivism Theory of descriptions Definite description Unilalianism Verification theory.

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Seven Champions of Christendom , St. George, of England; St. Denis, of France; St. James, of Spain; St. Anthony, of Italy; St. Andrew, of Scotland; St. Patrick, of Ireland; and St. David, of Wales—often alluded to by old writers. Seven Dolours of the Virgin , the prediction of Simeon Luke ii. Seven Sleepers , seven noble youths of Ephesus who, to escape the persecution of Decius, fled into a cave, where they fell asleep and woke up at the end of two centuries. Seven Years' War , the name given to the third and most terrible struggle between Frederick the Great of Prussia and Maria Theresa, empress of Austria, for, the possession of Silesia, which embroiled almost all Europe in war, and which had far-reaching effects on the destinies of England and France as well as Prussia; began in by Frederick's successful advance on Dresden, anticipating Maria Theresa's intention of attempting the recovery of Silesia, lost to her in the previous two wars.

In Peter III. Besides demonstrating the strength and genius of Frederick and raising immensely the prestige of Prussia, it enabled England to make complete her predominance in North America and to establish herself securely in India, while at the same time it gave the death-blow to French hopes of a colonial empire. Severn , the second river of England, rises on the E. Severus, L. Septimius , Roman emperor, born in Leptis Magna, in Africa; was in command at Pannonia, and elected emperor on the murder of Pertinax, and after conquering his rivals achieved victories in the East, especially against the Parthians, and thereafter subdued a rebellion in Britain, and secured South Britain against invasions from the north by a wall; died at York Seville , a celebrated Spanish city and river port on the Guadalquivir, 62 m.

Niort is the capital. Seward, Anna , poetess, born at Eyam, Derbyshire, but from the age of seven spent her life at Lichfield, where her father was residentiary canon; was a friend and indefatigable correspondent of Mrs. Piozzi, Dr. Seward, William Henry , American statesman, born at Florida, New York State; was called to the bar at Utica in , and soon took rank as one of the finest forensic orators of his country; engaged actively in the politics of his State, of which he was governor in and ; entered the U. Sextant , an instrument used in navigation sometimes also in land-surveying for measuring the altitudes of celestial bodies and their angular distances; consists of a graduated brass sector, the sixth part of a circle, and an arrangement of two small mirrors and telescope; invented in by John Hadley.

Sforza i. Sgraffito , a decorative wall painting, produced by layers of plaster applied to a moistened surface and afterwards operated on so as to produce a picture. Shafites , a sect of the Sunnites or orthodox Mohammedans, so called from Shafei, a descendant of Mohammed. Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of , grandson of the preceding, philosopher, born in London; was an ardent student in his youth, made the grand tour, and entered Parliament in , moving to the Upper House on the death of his father in , where, as a staunch Whig, he gave steady support to William III.

Shah Pers. Shakers , a fanatical sect founded by one Ann Lee, so called from their extravagant gestures in worship; they are agamists and communists. Shakespeare, William , great world-poet and dramatist, born in Stratford-on-Avon, in Warwickshire; his father, John Shakespeare, a respected burgess; his mother, Mary Arden, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer, through whom the family acquired some property; was at school at Stratford, married Anne Hathaway, a yeoman's daughter, at 18, she eight years older, and had by her three daughters; left for London somewhere between and , in consequence, it is said, of some deer-stealing frolic; took charge of horses at the theatre door, and by-and-by became an actor.

Not much more than this is known of the poet's external history, and what there is contributes nothing towards accounting for either him or the genius revealed in his dramas. On the whole, I know not such a power of vision, such a faculty of thought, if we take all the characters of it, in any other man—such a calmness of depth, placid, joyous strength, all things in that great soul of his so true and clear, as in a tranquil, unfathomable sea It is not a transitory glance of insight that will suffice; it is a deliberate illumination of the whole matter; it is a calmly seeing eye—a great intellect, in short It is in delineating of men and things, especially of men, that Shakespeare is great The thing he looks at reveals not this or that face, but its inmost heart, its generic secret; it dissolves itself as in light before him, so that he discerns the perfect structure of it It is a perfectly level mirror we have here; no twisted , poor convex-concave mirror reflecting all objects with its own convexities and concavities, that is to say, withal a man justly related to all things and men, a good man And his intellect is an unconscious intellect; there is more virtue in it than he himself is aware of His art is not artifice; the noblest worth of it is not there by plan or pre-contrivance.

It grows up from the deeps of Nature, through this noble sincere soul, who is a voice of Nature It is Nature's highest reward to a true, simple, great soul that he got thus to be part of herself. Shakespeare had to write for the Globe Playhouse; his great soul had to crush itself, as it could, into that and no other mould. It was with him, then, as it is with us all. No man works save under conditions. The sculptor cannot set his own free thought before us, but his thought as he could translate into the stone that was given, with the tools that were given. Disjecta membra are all that we find of any poet, or of any man. Shakespeare of Divines , an epithet sometimes applied to Jeremy Taylor q. Shalott, Lady of , subject of a poem of Tennyson's in love with Lancelot; wove a web which she must not rise from, otherwise a curse would fall on her; saw Lancelot pass one day, entered a boat and glided down to Camelot, but died on the way.

Shamanism , the religion of the native savage races of North Siberia, being a belief in spirits, both good and evil, who can be persuaded to bless or curse by the incantations of a Priest called a Shaman. Shammai , an eminent Jewish rabbi of the time of Herod, who held the position of supreme judge in the Sanhedrim under the presidency of Hillel q. Shamrock , a small trefoil plant, the national emblem of Ireland; it is matter of dispute whether it is the wood-sorrel, a species of clover, or some other allied trefoil; the lesser yellow trefoil is perhaps the most commonly accepted symbol. Shamyl , a great Caucasian chief, head of the Lesghians, who combined the functions of priest and warrior; consolidated the Caucasian tribes in their resistance to the Russians, and carried on a successful struggle in his mountain fastnesses for thirty years, till his forces were worn out and himself made captive in ; d.

Shanghai , the chief commercial city and port of China, on the Wusung, an affluent of the Yangtse-kiang, 12 m. Cavan; flows in a south-westerly direction through Loughs Allen, Ree, and Derg, besides forming several lough expansions, to Limerick, whence it turns due W. Shans or Laos , the name of a people, descendants of aborigines of China, forming several large tribes scattered round the frontiers of Burma, Siam, and South China, whose territory, roughly speaking, extends N. Sharon , a fertile region in Palestine of the maritime plain between Carmel and Philistia. Sharp, James , archbishop of St.

Andrews; henceforward he was but a pliant tool in the hands of his English employers, and an object of intense hatred to the Covenanters; in his life was attempted in Edinburgh by Robert Mitchell, a covenanting preacher, and ultimately on Magus Muir, May , he was mercilessly hacked to pieces by a band of Covenanters headed by Hackston and John Balfour Shaster , a book containing the institutes of the Hindu religion or its legal requirements. Shawnees , a tribe of American Indians located originally in the eastern slopes of the Alleghanies, but now removed to Missouri, Kansas, and the Indian Territory. Sheba , believed to be a region in South Arabia, along the shore of the Red Sea.

Shechinah , a glory as of the Divine presence over the mercy-seat in the Jewish Tabernacle, and reflected from the winged cherubim which overshadowed it, the reality of which it is the symbol being the Divine presence in man. Sheepshanks, John , art collector, born at Leeds, son of a manufacturer; presented in a collection of works by British artists to the nation, now housed in South Kensington Sheerness 14 , a fortified seaport and important garrison town with important naval dockyards in Kent, occupying the NW.

Sheffield , a city of Yorkshire, and chief centre of the English cutlery trade, built on hilly ground on the Don near its confluence with the Sheaf, whence its name, 41 m. Firth College , and various societies; does a vast trade in all forms of steel, iron, and brass goods, as well as plated and britannia-metal articles; has of late years greatly developed its manufactures of armour-plate, rails, and other heavier goods; its importance as a centre of cutlery dates from very early times, and the Cutlers' Company was founded in ; has been from Saxon times the capital of the manor district of Hallamshire; it is divided into five parliamentary districts, each of which sends a member to Parliament.

Sheikh , the chief of an Arab tribe; used often as a title of respect, Sheikh-ul-Islam being the ecclesiastical head of Mohammedans in Turkey. Sheil, Richard Lalor , Irish patriot, born in Tipperary; bred to the bar; gave himself for some time to literature, living by it; joined the Catholic Association; was distinguished for his oratory and his devotion, alongside of O'Connell, to Catholic emancipation; supported the Whig Government, and held office under Melbourne and Lord John Russell Shelburne, William Petty, Earl of , statesman, born in Dublin; succeeded to his father's title in , a few weeks after his election to the House of Commons; held office in the ministries of Grenville , of Chatham , and of Rockingham ; his acceptance of the Premiership in , after Rockingham's death, led to the resignation of Fox and the entry of William Pitt, at the age of 23, into the Cabinet; his short ministry July to Feb.

Shenandoah , a river of Virginia, formed by two head-streams rising in Augusta Co. Shenstone, William , poet, born, the son of a landed proprietor, at Hales-Owen, Shropshire; was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, and during the years produced three vols. Sheol , the dark underworld or Hades of the Hebrews, inhabited by the shades of the dead. Shepherd Kings or Hyksos , a tribe of shepherds, alleged to have invaded Lower Egypt years before Christ, overthrown the reigning dynasty, and maintained their supremacy for years. Shepherd of Salisbury Plain , name of the hero, a shepherd of the name of Saunders, in a tract written by Hannah More, characterised by homely wisdom and simple piety. Sheppard, Jack , a notorious criminal, whose audacious robberies and daring escapes from Newgate Prison made him for a time the terror and talk of London; drew some , people to witness his execution at Tyburn; figures as the hero of a well-known novel by Harrison Ainsworth Sheppey, Isle of , an islet in the estuary of the Thames, at the mouth of the Medway, belonging to Kent, from which it is separated by the Swale spanned by a swing-bridge ; great clay cliffs rise on the N.

Sherborne 4 , an interesting old town of Dorsetshire, pleasantly situated on rising ground overlooking the Yeo, m. Sherbrooke, Robert Low, Viscount , statesman, born, the son of a rector, at Bingham, Notts; graduated at Oxford; obtained a Fellowship, and in was called to the bar; six years later emigrated to Australia; made his mark at the Sydney bar, taking at the same time an active part in the politics of the country; returned to England in , and entered Parliament, holding office under Lord Aberdeen and Lord Palmerston ; education became his chief interest for some time, and in he fiercely opposed the Whig Reform Bill, but subsequently made amends to his party by his powerful support of Gladstone's Irish Church Disestablishment Bill, and was included in the Liberal ministry of as Chancellor of the Exchequer, a post he held till , when he became Home Secretary; a man of great intellectual force and independency of judgment; created a viscount in ; was D.

Shere Ali , Ameer of Afghanistan, son and successor of Dost Mohammed, at first favoured by Britain, but at last distrusted and was driven from the throne Sheridan, Philip Henry , a distinguished American general, born, of Irish parentage, in Albany, New York; obtained a cadetship at West Point Military Academy, and entered the army as a second-lieutenant in ; served in Texas and during the Civil War; won rapid promotion by his great dash and skill as commander of a cavalry regiment; gained wide repute by his daring raids into the S. Sherif or Shereef , a title of dignity among Mohammedans of either sex bestowed upon descendants of the Prophet through his daughters Fatima and Ali; as a distinguishing badge women wear a green veil, and men a green turban.

Sheriff , in England the chief officer of the Crown in every county, appointed annually, and intrusted with the execution of the laws and the maintenance of peace and order, with power to summon the posse commitatus. In Scotland the sheriff, or sheriff-depute as he is called, is the chief judge of the county, and has under him one or more sheriffs-substitute, upon whom devolves the larger portion of the important and multifarious duties of his office. In America the sheriff is the chief administrative officer of the county, but exercises no judicial functions at all. Sheriffmuir , a barren spot stretching N. Sherlock, Thomas , English prelate, born in London; became bishop in succession of Bangor, Salisbury, and London, declining the Primacy; wrote several theological works, and took up arms against the rationalists of the day, such as Collins and Woolston Sherlock Holmes , an amateur detective, a creation of Dr.

Conan Doyle. Sherman, William Tecumseh , a distinguished American general, born, the son of a judge, in Lancaster, Ohio; first saw service as a lieutenant of artillery in the Indian frontier wars in Florida and California; resigned from the army in , and set up as a banker in San Francisco, but at the outbreak of the Civil War accepted a colonelcy in the Federalist ranks; distinguished himself at the battles of Bull Run and Shiloh ; received promotion, and as second in command to Grant rendered valuable service in reducing Vicksburg and Memphis; was present at the victory of Chattanooga, and during entered into command of the SW.

Sherwood Forest , once an extensive forest, the scene of Robin Hood's exploits, in Nottinghamshire, stretching some 25 m. Shetland or Zetland 29 , a group of over islands, islets, and skerries, of which 29 are inhabited, forming the northernmost county of Scotland, lying out in the Atlantic, NNE. Lerwick q. Shibboleth , a word by which the Gileadites distinguished an Ephraimite from his inability to sound the sh in the word, and so discovered whether he was friend or foe; hence it has come to denote a party cry or watchword.

Shields, North , a flourishing seaport of Northumberland, on the Tyne, near the mouth, 8 m. Shields, South 78 , a busy seaport and popular watering-place in Durham, with a frontage of 2 m. The Persians belong to this sect. Shikarpur 42 , capital of a district in N. Sind, India, situated on rich alluvial ground, 18 m. Shiloh , a village 20 m. Is a name also of the Messiah. Shinar , the vast alluvial plain extending along the Tagus and Euphrates, forming the country of Chaldea and Babylonia. Shintoism , the native religion of Japan; a system of ancestor worship chiefly, combined with which is a religious homage paid to the Mikado. Ship-Money , a tax levied by Charles I. Shipton, Mother , a prophetess of English legend, whose preternatural knowledge revealed in her prophecies, published after her death, was ascribed to an alliance with the devil, by whom it was said she became the mother of an ugly impish child.

Shiraz 30 , a celebrated city of Persia, occupying a charming site on an elevated plain, m. Shishak , the name of several monarchs of Egypt of the twenty-second dynasty, the first of whom united nearly all Egypt under one government, invaded Judea and plundered the Temple of Jerusalem about B. Shittim Wood , a hard, close-grained acacia wood of an orange-brown colour found in the Arabian Desert, and employed in constructing the Jewish Tabernacle. Shoa 1, , the southmost division of Abyssinia q. Shoddy , a stuff woven of old woollen fabrics teased into fibre and of new wool intermixed. Shoeburyness , a town in Essex, near Southend, a stretch of moorland utilised by the Government for gunnery practice.

Sholapur 61 , chief town in the Presidency of Bombay, in a district of the name, m. Shore, Jane , the celebrated mistress of Edward IV. Shoreditch , parliamentary borough of East London; returns two members to Parliament; manufactures furniture, boot and shoes, beer, etc. Shoreham, New , a seaport 6 m. Shovel, Sir Cloudesley , a celebrated English admiral, born at Clay, in Norfolk; was apprenticed to a cobbler, but ran away to sea, and rose from grade to grade till in we find him a lieutenant in the Mediterranean fleet; was knighted in for his gallantry as commander of a ship in the battle of Bantry Bay, and in the following year as rear-admiral was prominent at the engagement off Beachy Head; in gave heroic assistance to Admiral Russell at La Hogue, and in to Rooke at Malaga; elevated to the commandership of the English fleets he in captured Barcelona, but on his way home from an unsuccessful attack upon Toulon was wrecked on the Scilly Isles and drowned Shrewsbury 27 , county town of Shropshire, situated on a small peninsula formed by a horse-shoe bend of the Severn, 42 m.

The public school, founded by Edward VI. Shropshire or Salop , an agricultural and mining county of England, on the Welsh border, facing Montgomery chiefly, between Cheshire N. Shrewsbury is the capital; it consists of four Parliamentary divisions. Shrovetide , confession-time, especially the days immediately before Lent, when, in Catholic times, the people confessed their sins to the parish priest and afterwards gave themselves up to sports, and dined on pancakes, Shrove Tuesday being Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, or the first day of Lent.

Shumla or Shumna 24 , a fortified city of Bulgaria, 80 m. Buddhism is the national religion, and elementary education is well advanced; government is vested in a king at present an enlightened and English-educated monarch and council of ministers; since Sir J. Bowring's treaty in , opening up the country to European trade and influences, progress has been considerable in roads and railway, electric, telephonic, and postal communication. Bangkok q. In a large tract of territory NE. Sibbald, Sir Robert , physician and naturalist, born in Edinburgh, of Balgonie, Fife; established a botanic garden in Edinburgh, and was one of the founders of the Royal College of Physicians Siberia 5, , a vast Russian territory in North Asia one and a third times the size of Europe , stretching from the Ural Mountains W.

Russian advance in Asia against the Tartars was begun in , and was carried on by warlike Cossack marauders, followed by hunters, droves of escaping serfs, and persecuted religious sects. These, after being entrusted to keepers, were afterwards burned, and the contents replaced by a commission appointed to collect them in the countries around, to share the same fate as the original collection. Sicilian Vespers , name given to a massacre of the French in Sicily at the hour of vespers on the eve of Easter Monday in , the signal for the commencement being the first stroke of the vesper bell; the massacre included men and women and children to the number of souls, and was followed by others throughout the island. Sicily 3, , the largest island in the Mediterranean, lying off the SW.

Palermo, the largest city, is situated on the precipitous N. Sicyon , a celebrated city of ancient Greece, was situated near the Corinthian Gulf, 7 m. Siddons, Sarah , the greatest tragic actress of England, born at Brecon, the daughter and eldest child of Roger Kemble, manager of an itinerant theatrical company; became early a member of her father's company, and at 19 married an actor named Siddons who belonged to it; her first appearance in Drury Lane as Portia in was a failure; by her fame was established, after which she joined her brother, John Kemble, at Covent Garden, and continued to act there till her retirement in ; she was distinguished in many parts, and above all Lady Macbeth, in which character she took farewell of the stage; she appeared once again in London after this in , for the benefit of her brother Charles, and again a few nights in Edinburgh in aid of a widowed daughter-in-law Sidereal Year , the period during which the earth makes a revolution in its orbit with respect to the stars.

Sidmouth 4 , a pretty little watering-place on the S. Devonshire coast, 14 m. Sidmouth, Henry Addington, Viscount , statesman, born in London, the son of a physician; studied at Oxford, and was called to the bar, but gave up law for politics, entered Parliament in , and was Speaker from till , in which year, after the fall of Pitt over Catholic emancipation, he formed a ministry, assuming himself the offices of First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Sidney or Sydney , Algernon , a noted politician and soldier of extreme republican views, second son of Robert, second Earl of Leicester; first came into public notice in by his gallant conduct as leader of a troop of horse in the Irish Rebellion; came over to England in , joined the Parliamentarians, rose to a colonelcy and command of a regiment in ; was subsequently governor of Dublin and of Dover , entered Parliament , and although appointed one of the commissioners to try Charles I.

Sidon , an ancient Phoenician city on the E. Siebengebirge , a range of hills on the right bank of the Rhine, 20 m. Siemens, Werner von , a celebrated German electrician and inventor, born at Lenthe, Hanover; served in the Prussian artillery, and rendered valuable services in developing the telegraphic system of Prussia; patented a process for electro-plating in gold and silver, and was the first to employ electricity in exploding submarine mines; retired from the army in , and along with Halske established a business in Berlin for telegraphic and electrical apparatus, which has become notable throughout the world, having branches in several cities; made many contributions to electrical science; was ennobled in Sienna or Siena 28 , an interesting old Italian city of much importance during the Middle Ages, in Central Italy, 60 m.

Sierra Leone 75 , a British maritime colony since , on the W. Freetown q. The executive power is exercised by a governor and council of five. Sierra Madre , the main cordillera system of Mexico, extending in a northerly direction to Arizona, and forming the western buttress of a fertile plateau stretching eastwards; to the W. Sierra Morena , a mountain chain in South Spain, forming the watershed between the valleys of the Gaudiana N. Sierra Nevada , 1, a mountain range in South Spain, 60 m. Sigismund is the name of three kings of Poland, the last of whom died in Sigourney, Mrs. See Siegfried. Sikhs lit. In they crossed their E. The practice of thus preserving green crops for fodder dates from earliest times, but its general adoption in Britain only began in since when its spread has been rapid.

Silenus , a satyr who attended Dionysus, being his foster-father and teacher; assisted in the war of the giants, and slew Enceladus; had the gift of vaticination; is represented as mounted on an ass and supported by other satyrs. Silesia 4, , a province of South-East Prussia, stretching S. Silesia, Austrian , that portion of the original Silesian country preserved to Austria after the unsuccessful struggle with Prussia; forms a duchy and crownland of Austria, and extends SW. Silhouette , name given to the profile of a portrait filled in with black; a design familiar to the ancients, and in vogue in France during the reign of Louis XV.

Silistria 12 , a town of Bulgaria, on the Danube, 70 m. Benjamin Silliman , son of preceding, also an active scientist along his father's lines; founded the Yale School of Science, and filled the chairs of Chemistry at Louisville and at Yale till ; was co-editor of the Journal of Science , and wrote various popular text-books of chemistry and physics Silloth 3 , a watering-place of Cumberland, on the Solway Firth, 20 m. Silures , one of the ancient British tribes occupying the SE. Silvanus , an Italian divinity, the guardian of trees, fields, and husbandmen; represented as a hale, happy, old man.

Silver Age , the age in the Greek mythology in succession to the Golden; gold being viewed as the reality, and silver the idle reflection. See Ages and Golden Age. Simeon, St. Simeon Stylites , famous as one of the Pillar Saints q. Simferopol 36 , a town in the Crimea, 49 m. Simla 15, but largely increased in summer , the chief town of a district in the Punjab, and since the summer hill-quarters of the British Government in India; beautifully situated on the wooded southern slopes of the Himalayas, ft.

Simon, Jules , French statesman and distinguished writer on social, political, and philosophic subjects, born at Lorient; succeeded Cousin in the chair of Philosophy at the Sorbonne; entered the Chamber of Deputies in ; lost his post at the Sorbonne in for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III. Simon, Richard , a celebrated French biblical scholar, born at Dieppe; entered the Congregation of the Oratory in , and became professor of Philosophy at the College of Juilly; was summoned to Paris, and under orders of his superiors spent some time in cataloguing the Oriental MSS. Simon Magus , a sorcerer, one who by his profession of magic aggrandised himself at the expense of the people of Samaria, and who, when he saw the miracles wrought by the Apostles, and St.

Peter in particular, offered them money to confer the like power on himself; Peter's well-known answer was not without effect on him, but it was only temporary, for he afterwards appeared in Rome and continued to impose upon the people so as to persuade them to believe him as an incarnation of the Most High. Hence Simony, the sin of making gain by the buying or selling of spiritual privileges for one's material profit. Simonides of Amorgos , a Greek poet who flourished in the 7th century B. Simoom or Simoon , a hot, dry wind-storm common to the arid regions of Africa, Arabia, and parts of India; the storm moves in cyclone circular form, carrying clouds of dust and sand, and produces on men and animals a suffocating effect.

Simplon , a mountain in the Swiss Alps, in the canton of Valais, traversed by the famous Simplon Pass ft. Sims, George Robert , playwright and novelist, born in London; was for a number of years on the staff of Fun and a contributor to the Referee and Weekly Dispatch , making his mark by his humorous and pathetic Dagonet ballads and stories; has been a busy writer of popular plays e. Sinai, Mount , one of a range of three mountains on the peninsula between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akaba, at the head of the Red Sea, and from the summit or slopes of which Moses is said to have received the Ten Commandments at the hands of Jehovah.

Sincerity , in Carlyle's ethics the one test of all worth in a human being, that he really with his whole soul means what he is saying and doing, and is courageously ready to front time and eternity on the stake. Sinclair , name of a Scottish family of Norman origin whose founder obtained from David I. Sindia , the hereditary title of the Mahratta dynasty in Gwalior, Central India, founded in by Ranojee Sindia, who rose from being slipper-bearer to the position of hereditary prime minister of the Mahrattas; these princes, both singly and in combination with other Mahratta powers, offered determined resistance to the British, but in the confederated Mahratta power was broken by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and a large portion of their territory passed into British hands.

Gwalior having been restored , and retaken in , the Sindia dynasty was reinstated under a more stringent treaty, and Boji Rao Sindia proved faithful during the Mutiny, receiving various marks of good-will from the British; was succeeded by his adopted son, a child of six, in Singapore , 1, , chiefly Chinese , the most important of the British Straits Settlements q. Sinology , the science treating of the language, literature, laws, and history of the Chinese. Sinon , a wily Greek who beguiled the Trojans and persuaded them to admit the Wooden Horse into the city, to its ruin. Sinope 8 , a seaport of Turkey in Asia, situated on a narrow isthmus connecting with the mainland the rocky headland of Cape Sinope which projects into the Black Sea, m.

Sion , capital of the Swiss canton of Valais, on the Rhine, 42 m. Siout or Asioot 32 , capital of Upper Egypt; commands a fine view near the Nile, m. Failure on the part of the United States Government to observe certain treaty conditions led to a great uprising of the Sioux in , which was only put down at a great cost of blood and treasure; conflicts also took place in and , the Indians finding in their chief, Sitting Bull, a determined and skilful leader.

Sirens , in the Greek mythology a class of nymphs who were fabled to lure the passing sailor to his ruin by the fascination of their music; Ulysses, when he passed the beach where they were sitting, had his ears stuffed with wax and himself lashed to the mast till he was at a safe distance from the influence of their charm. Orpheus, however, as he passed them in the Argonautic expedition so surpassed their music by his melodious notes, that in very shame they flung themselves into the sea and were changed into boulders.

Sirius or The Dog-Star , the brightest star in the heavens, one of the stars of the Southern constellation of Canis Major ; is calculated to have a bulk three times that of the sun, and to give 70 times as much light. See Dog-Days. See Simoom. Sistova 12 , a town of Bulgaria, on the Danube, 33 m. Sisyphus , a mythical king of Corinth, who for some offence he gave the gods was carried off to the nether world, and there doomed to roll a huge block up a hill, which no sooner reached the top than it bounded back again, making his toil endless.

Sitka or New Archangel 1 , capital of Alaska, on the W. The linga q. See Psalm xc. Sivaji , the founder of the Mahratta power in India, a bold warrior but an unlettered, of Rajput descent, brought up at Poona; began his career at 19; on his succession assumed the title of rajah in , and was enthroned at Raigpur in , and died sovereign of the whole Deccan Six Articles. See Bloody Statute. Sixtus , the name of five Popes. Sixtus IV. Sixtus V. Sizar , a poor student at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, so called from the size or allowance of food they were recipients of out of the college buttery.

Skald , an old Scandinavian poet, a reciter or singer of poems in praise of the Norse warriors and their deeds. Skene, William Forbes , Scottish historian, born in Kincardineshire, bred to law; devoted 40 years of his life to the study of the early, in particular the Celtic, periods of Scottish history, and was from historiographer for Scotland Skerryvore , a rock with a lighthouse, one of an extensive reef 10 m. Skiddaw , a mountain in Cumberland, ft. Skipton 10 , a market-town in Yorkshire, 26 m. Skobeleff, Michael , a Russian general, distinguished himself by his bravery in the Russian service, particularly in the Russo-Turkish War of ; was a leader in the Panslavist movement; died suddenly Skye 16 , next to Lewis the largest of the Hebrides Islands, belongs to the Inner group, and is included in Inverness-shire, from the mainland of which it is separated by the narrow channel Kyle Rhea; has a deeply indented coast-line, and a picturesquely diversified surface of mountain, moor, and loch; the most notable features being the lofty Coolin Hills highest point ft.

Portree is the chief town and port, but is little better than a small village. Slade, Felix , antiquary and art-collector; left his art-collection to the British Museum, and money to found Slade professorships of art at Oxford, Cambridge, and London Universities Slavonia , a kingdom that at one time included Croatia and that lies between the Drave and the Military Frontier. At the dawn of history we find them already settled in Europe, chiefly in the neighbourhood of the Carpathians, whence they spread N. They are estimated to number now ,,, and the various languages spoken by them are notable, compared with the Teutonic and Celtic tongues, for their rich inflections.

Sleeping Beauty , a princess who was by enchantment shut up to sleep years in a castle surrounded by a dense forest, and was delivered from her trance at the end of that term by a prince, to admit whom the forest opened of itself. Sleswick-Holstein 1, , a province of North Prussia, stretching up to Denmark, between the North Sea and the Baltic; various canals cross the country, bearing to the coast the export produce—corn and cattle; the land is highly cultivated, and fishing is an important industry on the Baltic coast; Flensburg, the chief seaport, and Sleswick 15 , the capital, are both situated on inlets of the Baltic; the latter lies 28 m.

Sloane, Sir Hans , physician and naturalist, born in co. Down, Ireland, of Scotch descent; settled as a physician in London; attained the highest distinction as a professional man; his museum, which was a large one, of natural objects, books, and MSS. Slovaks , a Slavonic peasant people numbering some 2,,, subject to the crown of Hungary since the 11th century, and occupying the highlands of North-West Hungary; speak a dialect of Czech. Smeaton, John , civil engineer, born near Leeds; began life as a mathematical instrument-maker; made improvements in mill-work, and gained the Copley Medal in ; visited the principal engineering works in Holland and Belgium; was entrusted with the rebuilding of Eddystone Lighthouse q.

Smectymnuus , a pamphlet written in , the title of which is made up of the initial letters of the names of the authors. Smith, John , sailor, born in Lincolnshire; had a life of adventure and peril, and became leader of the English colonists of Virginia; established friendly relations with the Indians, returned to this country twice over, and introduced Pocahontas q. Smith, Sydney , political writer and wit, born at Woodford, Essex, of partly English and partly Huguenot blood; educated at Westminster and Oxford, bred for the Church; after a brief curacy in Wiltshire settled in Edinburgh from to , where, while officiating as a clergyman, he became one of the famous editors of the Edinburgh Review , and a contributor; settled for a time afterwards in London, where he delivered a series of admirable lectures on ethics, till he was appointed to a small living in Yorkshire, and afterwards to a richer living in Somerset, and finally a canonry in St.

Paul's; his writings deal with abuses of the period, and are, except his lectures perhaps, all out of date now

He became a citizen of Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment "by taking the oath of allegiance Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment a very early period". Several weeks after Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment election to the National Convention, Paine was selected as one of Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment deputies to be part of the Convention's Constitutional Committee, who were charged to draft a suitable constitution for the French Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment. In fact, historians quote the publishment of Newton's masterpiece Principia in as the most logical and Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment catalyst to the enlightenment. In their modes of thinking they are taken up with concrete realities Apk Project Swot Analysis of abstractions, and Benjamin Franklin: Wisdom Championed By Rousseau And Of The Enlightenment they have contributed nothing to science or philosophy, much as they have to faith. Montesquieu based this model on the Constitution of the Roman Republic and the British constitutional system. Without the Enlightenment, one can only conceptualize Analysis Of Jerry Spinellis Stargirl distinctively diverse the world would be today Sica Breakthroughs in The Scientific Revolution.

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