⌛ Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe, All The Tears
There is no obvious reason to doubt the trustworthiness of Martin Bird. I also liked the inclusion of the video examples. For the first time the sitter seeks to establish Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe contact with the spectator, and since Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe artist Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe him en buste, omitting Chavezs Early Years: Poem Analysis hands, Spanish Culture Vs Mexican Culture Essay Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe from the magnetism of the face. Rosencrantz Neither, my lord. If All The Tears was ever so angry, a word or look from Father Holt made her calm: indeed All The Tears had a vast power of subjecting those who came near him; and, among the rest, his new pupil gave himself Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe with an entire confidence and attachment to the good All The Tears, and became his willing slave almost from the All The Tears 1960s fashion for men he saw him.
Literary Devices: How to Use Literary Elements to Improve Writing
O, there be players that I have seen play-- and heard others praise, and that highly-- not to speak it profanely, that, neither having the accent of Christians, nor the gait of Christian, pagan, nor man, have so strutted and bellowed that I have thought some of nature's journeymen had made men, and not made them well, they imitated humanity so abominably. And let those that play your clowns reasonably speak no more than is set down for them, for there be of them that will themselves laugh to set on some quantity of barren spectators to laugh too, though in the meantime some necessary question of the play be then to be considered.
That's villanous, and shows a most pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it. Go make you ready. Why should the poor be flatter'd? Dost thou hear? Since my dear soul was mistress of her choice, And could of men distinguish her election, heavy, weighty She hath seal'd thee for herself, for thou hast been As one in suffering all that suffers nothing, A man that Fortune's buffets and rewards Hast ta'en with equal thanks; and bles'd are those Whose blood and judgment are so well co-meddled intermingled That they are not a pipe for Fortune's finger To sound what stop she please. Give me that man That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart, As I do thee.
Something too much of this. I prithee, when thou see'st that act a-foot, Even with the very comment of thy soul Observe mine uncle. If his occulted guilt Do not itself unkennel in one speech, It is a damned ghost that we have seen, And my imaginations are as foul As Vulcan's stithy. Give him heedful note, secret For I mine eyes will rivet to his face; And after we will both our judgments join In censure of his seeming. If he steal aught the whilst this play is playing, And scape detecting, I will pay the theft.
A flourish. I must be idle ; Get you a place. HAMLET: Excellent, i' faith; of the chameleon's dish: I eat the air, pose as mad allusion to chameleons' only eating air points out Hamlets' belief that he too has nothing to sustain himself since the promise that he would be heir to the throne has been taken from him. I was kill'd i' the Capitol; Brutus killed me. Be the players ready? What should a man do but be merry, for look you how cheerfully my mother looks, and my father died within 's two hours. Nay then let the devil wear black, for I'll have a suit of sables O heavens, die two months ago, and not forgotten yet?
Then there's hope a great man's memory may outlive his life half a year: but, by'r lady, he must build churches then; or else luxurious fur shall he suffer not thinking on, with the hobby-horse, whose epitaph is "For O, for O, the hobby-horse is forgot! The dumb show enters. She kneels, and makes show of protestation unto him. He takes her up, and declines his head upon her neck. He lies down upon a bank of flowers. She, seeing him asleep, leaves him. Anon comes in a fellow, takes off his crown, kisses it, pours poison in the King's ears, and exit.
The Queen returns, finds the King dead, and makes passionate action. The Poisoner with some three or four Mutes, comes in again, seeming to lament with her. The dead body is carried away. The Poisoner woos the Queen with gifts; she seems loth and unwilling awhile, but in the end accepts his love. The players cannot keep counsel, they'll tell all. Be not you ashamed to show, he'll not shame to tell you what it means. I'll mark the play. Yet though I distrust, Discomfort you, my lord, it nothing must, For women's fear and love holds quantity, In neither aught, or in extremity. Now what my love is, proof hath made you know; And as my love is siz'd, my fear is so. Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear; Where little fears grow great, great love grows there.
Such love must needs be treason in my breast. In second husband let me be accurs'd! None wed the second but who kill'd the first. A second time I kill my husband dead, When second husband kisses me in bed. Purpose is but the slave to memory, Of violent birth, but poor validity: Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree, But fall unshaken when they mellow be. What to ourselves in passion we propose, The passion ending, doth the purpose lose. The violence of either grief or joy Their own enactures with themselves destroy. Where joy most revels, grief doth most lament; Grief joys, joy grieves, on slender accident This world is not for aye, nor 'tis not strange That even our loves should with our fortunes change: the slightest instance For 'tis a question left us yet to prove, Whether love lead fortune, or else fortune love.
The great man down, you mark his favorite flies, The poor advanc'd makes friends of enemies. And hitherto doth love on fortune tend, For who not needs shall never lack a friend, And who in want a hollow friend doth try, Directly seasons him his enemy. But orderly to end where I begun, Our wills and fates do so contrary run That our devices still are overthrown, Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own: So think thou wilt no second husband wed, But die thy thoughts when thy first lord is dead.
Each opposite that blanks the face of joy Meet what I would have well and it destroy! Sweet, leave me here a while, My spirits grow dull, and fain I would beguile The tedious day with sleep. KING: Have you heard the argument? Is there no offence in't? They do but jest , poison in jest, no offence i' the world. KING: What do you call the play? Tropically, this play is the image of a murder done in Vienna: Gonzago is the duke's name, his wife, Baptista. You shall see anon. Your Majesty, and we that have free souls, it touches us not. Let the gall'd jade wince; our withers sore or vexed the base of a horse's neck are unwrung. Begin, murderer, leave thy damnable faces and begin. Come," The croaking raven doth bellow for revenge. His name's Gonzago, the story is extant, and written in very choice Italian.
You shall see anon how the murderer gets the love of Gonzago's wife. KING: Give me some light. Didst perceive? Come, some music! Come, the recorders! For if the King like not the comedy, Why then, belike he likes it not, perdy HAMLET: Your wisdom should show itself more richer to signify this to the doctor, for me to put him to his purgation would perhaps plunge him into far more choler. Have you any further trade with us? You do surely bar the door upon your own liberty if you deny your griefs to your friend.
Let me see one. Will you play upon this pipe? Govern these ventages with your fingers and thumb, give it breath with your mouth, and it will discourse most eloquent music. Look you, these are the stops. I have not the skill. You would play upon me, you would seem to know my stops, you would pluck out the heart of my mystery, you would sound me from my lowest note to the top of my compass; and there is much music, excellent voice, in this little organ, yet cannot you make it speak. Call me what instrument you will, though you can fret me, you cannot play upon me.
I will come by and by. Now could I drink hot blood, And do such bitter business as the day Would quake to look on. Soft, now to my mother. O heart, lose not thy nature! Let not ever The soul of Nero enter this firm bosom, allusion to Roman emperor who killed his mother Let me be cruel, not unnatural; I will speak daggers to her, but use none. My tongue and soul in this be hypocrites, How in my words somever she be shent , To give them seals never my soul consent!
Scene two offers Hamlet the evidence he needs that the ghost had spoken the truth. The play staged by the players, with Hamlet's direction, mimics the events described by the ghost regarding his murder and brings out the guilty reaction from Claudius that Hamlet sought. This scene has Hamlet confronting Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to uncover their betrayal of him. It also shows Hamlet's decision to finally take action himself. Scene III. A room in the Castle. Therefore prepare you. I your commission will forthwith dispatch, And he to England shall along with you. The terms of our estate may not endure Hazard so near us as doth hourly grow Out of his brows.
Most holy and religious fear it is To keep those many many bodies safe That live and feed upon your Majesty. The cease of majesty Dies not alone, but like a gulf doth draw What's near it with it. Or it is a massive wheel Fix'd on the summit of the highest mount, To whose huge spokes ten thousand lesser things whirlpool Are mortis'd and adjoin'd; which when it falls, Each small annexment, petty consequence, Attends the boisterous ruin Never alone Did the king sigh, but with a general groan.
KING: Arm you, I pray you, to this speedy voyage, attached noisy destruction For we will fetters about upon this fear, Which now goes too free-footed. Behind the arras I'll convey myself To hear the process. I'll warrant she'll tax him home, And as you said, and wisely was it said, 'Tis meet that some more audience than a mother, Since nature makes them partial, should o'erhear The speech, of vantage. Fare you well, my liege, I'll call upon you ere you go to bed, And tell you what I know.
KING: Thanks, dear my lord. Pray can I not, Though inclination be as sharp as will. My stronger guilt defeats my strong intent, And, like a man to double business bound, I stand in pause where I shall first begin, And both neglect. What if this cursed hand Were thicker than itself with brother's blood, Is there not rain enough in the sweet heavens To wash it white as snow? Whereto serves mercy But to confront the visage of offense? Then I'll look up. My fault is past, but, O, what form of prayer Can serve my turn? May one be pardon'd and retain the offense, In the corrupted currents of this world Offense's gilded hand may shove by justice; And oft 'tis seen the wicked prize itself Buys out the law, but 'tis not so above: There is no shuffling, there the action lies In his true nature; and we ourselves compell'd, bribing Even to the teeth and forehead of our faults, To give in evidence.
What then? What rests? Try what repentance can. What can it not? Yet what can it, when one cannot repent? O wretched state! O bosom black as death! Make assay, Bow, stubborn knees, and heart, with strings of steel, Be soft as sinews of the new-born babe! All may be well. That would be scann'd : A villain kills my father; and for that I, his sole son, do this same villain send will have to think about this To heaven. O, this is hire and salary, not revenge. He took my father grossly, full of bread, With all his crimes broad blown, as flush as May; And how his audit stands who knows save heaven?
And am I then reveng'd, To take him in the purging of his soul, When he is fit and season'd for his passage? My mother stays, This physic but prolongs thy sickly days. The moment passes when Claudius concludes that god's forgiveness would only come from admitting what he had done and giving up the things he gained--the crown, the power, and the queen, which he could not bring himself to do. Hamlet arrives at the King's chamber intending to exact revenge. He can see but not hear Claudius. When it appears the King is praying, Hamlet's over-thinking once more causes him to hesitate. Even with the knowledge discovered during the players' performance, he talks himself out of acting because the moment is not perfect. In delaying, Hamlet opens the door for greater violence.
The Queen's quarters. Look you lay home to him. Tell him his pranks have been too broad to bear with, And that your Grace hath screen'd and stood between Much heat and him. I'll silence me even here. Withdraws, I hear him coming. Help, ho! A rat? Dead for a ducat, dead! Almost as bad, good mother, As kill a king and marry with his brother. I took thee for thy better. Take thy fortune; Thou find'st to be too busy is some danger. Peace, sit you down, And let me wring your heart, for so I shall If it be made of penetrable stuff, If damned custom have not brass'd it so That it is proof and bulwark against sense.
HAMLET: Such an act That blurs the grace and blush of modesty, Calls virtue hypocrite, takes off the rose From the fair forehead of an innocent love And sets a blister there, makes marriage-vows As false as dicers' oaths: O, such a deed As from the body of contraction plucks The very soul, and sweet religion makes A rhapsody of words. Heaven's face does glow confused mass burn Yea, this solidity and compound mass , With heated visage, as against the doom, Is thought-sick at the act.
See what a grace was seated on this brow: Hyperion's curls, the front of Jove himself, An eye like Mars, to threaten and command, portraits the sun-god's A station like the herald Mercury New lighted on a heaven-kissing hill, A combination and a form, indeed, Where every god did seem to set his seal To give the world assurance of a man. Look you now what follows: Here is your husband, like a milldew'd ear Blasting his wholesome brother. Have you eyes? Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, And batten on this moor? Ha, have you eyes?
Sense sure you have, Else could you not have motion, but sure that sense Is apoplex'd , for madness would not err; Nor sense to ecstacy was ne'er so thrall'd But it reserv'd some quantity of choice To serve in such a difference What devil was't That thus hath cozen'd you at hoodman-blind? O shame, where is thy blush? Rebellious hell, without If thou canst mutine in a matron's bones, To flaming youth let virtue be as wax And melt in her own fire.
Proclaim no shame When the compulsive ardore gives the charge, Since frost itself as actively doth burn, break away And reason panders will. Thou turn'st mine eyes into my very soul, And there I see such black and grained spots As will not leave their tinct A slave that is not twentieth part the tithe Of your precedent lord, a vice of kings, A cutpurse of the empire and the rule, That from a shelf the precious diadem stole, And put it in his pocket-- QUEEN: No more! What would your gracious figure?
HAMLET: Do you not come your tardy son to chide, That, laps'd in time and passion, lets go by allows time and fury to pass The important acting of your dread command? O, say! This visitation Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose. But, look, amazement on thy mother sits, pressing O, step between her and her fighting soul. Conceit in weakest bodies strongest works, Speak to her, Hamlet. QUEEN: Alas, how is't with you, imagination That you do bend your eye on vacancy, And with the incorporal air do hold discourse?
Forth at your eyes your spirits wildly peep; And, as the sleeping soldiers in the alarm, Your bedded hair, like life in excrements , hair, standing on end, as if shocked Start up and stand an end. O gentle son, Upon the heat and flame of thy distemper Sprinkle cool patience. Whereon do you look? Look you how pale he glares! His form and cause conjoin'd, preaching to stones, Would make them capable. Look where he goes, even now, out at the portal! My pulse as yours doth temperately keep time, And makes as healthful music. It is not madness That I have utter'd. Bring me to the test, And I the matter will re-word, which madness Would gambol from. Mother, for love of grace, Lay not that flattering unction to your soul, That not your trespass but my madness speaks: It will but skin and film the ulcerous place, Whilst rank corruption, mining all within, leap away from a salve or soothing lotion Infects unseen.
Confess yourself to heaven, Repent what's past, avoid what is to come, And do not spread the compost on the weeds To make them ranker. Forgive me this my virtue, For in the fatness of these pursy times breathless, swollen Virtue itself of vice must pardon beg, Yea, curb and woo for leave to do him good. That monster custom, who all sense doth eat, Of habits evil, is angel yet in this, That to the use of actions fair and good He likewise gives a frock or livery That aptly is put on Refrain to-night, And that shall lend a kind of easiness To the next abstinence, the next more easy; For use almost can change the stamp of nature, like a uniform, put on without having to consider its appearance And either curb the devil, or throw him out With wondrous potency.
Once more, good-night; And when you are desirous to be blest, I'll blessing beg of you. I will bestow him, and will answer well The death I gave him. So again, good-night. I must be cruel only to be kind. One word more, good lady. HAMLET: Not this, by no means, that I bid you do: Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed, Pinch wanton on your cheek, call you his mouse, And let him, for a pair of reechy kisses, Or paddling in your neck with his damn'd fingers, Make you to ravel all this matter out, That I essentially am not in madness, reeking But mad in craft.
Who would do so? No, in despite of sense and secrecy, frog woman chaser Unpeg the basket on the house's top, Let the birds fly, and like the famous ape, To try conclusions, in the basket creep And break your own neck down. Let it work, For 'tis the sport to have the enginer Hoist with his own petard and 't shall go hard But I will delve one yard below their mines, And blow them at the moon: O, 'tis most sweet When in one line two crafts directly meet. This man shall set me packing; petard, an explosive device destroyed by his own doing I'll lug the guts into the neighbor room. Mother, goodnight indeed. This counsellor Is now most still, most secret, and most grave, Who was in life a foolish prating knave.
Come, sir, to draw toward an end with you. Stabbing through the curtain at the person he believes is Claudius, Hamlet's intellect fails him. By not making certain this time, he accidentally kills Polonius. ACT IV. Where is your son? How does Hamlet? In his lawless fit Behind the arras hearing something stir, Whips out his rapier, cries "A rat, a rat! KING: O heavy deed! It had been so with us had we been there. Alas, how shall this bloody deed be answer'd? It will be laid to us, whose providence Should have kept short, restrain'd, and out of haunt in seclusion from others This mad young man; but so much was our love, We would not understand what was most fit, But, like the owner of a foul disease, To keep it from divulging, let it feed Even on the pith of life.
Where is he gone? Ho, Guildenstern! Go seek him out, speak fair, and bring the body Into the chapel. I pray you, haste in this. O, come away! My soul is full of discord and dismay. The prince will be sent to England under the pretense of keeping him safe and avoiding the anger of the people for having killed Polonius. Another room in the Castle. Lord Hamlet! Who calls on Hamlet? O, here they come. Besides, to be demanded of a sponge, what replication should be made by the son of a king?
But such officers do the King best service in the end: he keeps them, like an ape an apple, in the corner of his jaw; first mouthed, to be last swallowed. When he needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing you, and, sponge, you shall be dry again. Hide fox, and all after. KING: I have sent to seek him and to find the body. Yet must not we put the strong law on him.
He's lov'd of the distracted multitude, Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes; And where 'tis so, the offender's scourge is weigh'd, punishment But never the offense. To bear all smooth and even, This sudden sending him away must seem Deliberate pause. Diseases desperate grown By desperate appliance are reliev'd, Or not at all. KING: But where is he? KING: At supper? Your worm is your only emperor for diet: we fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots; your fat king and your lean beggar is but variable service , two dishes, but to one table-- that's at this moment gnawing at him separate courses of a meal the end.
KING: Alas, alas! KING: What dost thou mean by this? But, if indeed, you find him not within this month, you shall nose him as you go up the stairs into the lobby. KING: So is it, if thou knew'st our purposes. But, come, for England! Farewell, dear mother. Come, for England! Delay it not; I'll have him hence to-night. Away, for everything is seal'd and done That else leans on the affair. Pray you make haste. Do it, England, For like the hectic in my blood he rages, And thou must cure me. Till I know 'tis done, How e'er my haps , my joys were ne'er begun. Through a sarcastic play on words, Hamlet demeans the king by pointing out that kings and beggars all become food for maggots. The Danish coast near the Castle. Tell him that, by his license, Fortinbras Craves the conveyance of a promis'd march Over his kingdom.
You know the rendezvous. If that his majesty would aught with us, We shall express our duty in his eye, And let him know so. This is the imposthume of much wealth and peace, That inward breaks, and shows no cause without Why the man dies. I humbly thank you, sir. What is a man, If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? Sure He that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unus'd.
Now, whether it be Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple Of thinking too precisely on the event-- A thought which quarter'd hath but one part wisdom And ever three parts coward--I do not know become musty, foul smelling Why yet I live to say "This thing's to do;" Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means To do't. Examples gross as earth exhort me: Witness this army of such mass and charge, Led by a delicate and tender prince, Whose spirit with divine ambition puff'd Makes mouths at the invisible event, Exposing what is mortal and unsure To all that fortune, death, and danger dare, Even for an egg-shell.
Rightly to be great Is not to stir without great argument, But greatly to find quarrel in a straw When honor's at the stake. How stand I, then, That have a father kill'd, a mother stain'd, Excitements of my reason and my blood, And let all sleep, while to my shame I see The imminent death of twenty thousand men That for a fantasy and trick of fame Go to their graves like beds, fight for a plot Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, Which is not tomb enough and continent To hide the slain? When the ship carrying all three to England is met by pirates, Hamlet turns the tables on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and sends them to their deaths at the hands of the English. He returns to Denmark. Once back on shore, Hamlet encounters Fortinbras's soldiers and, learning of his intention to fight on principle for a worthless piece of land, he is again plagued by the reality that he has not been able to complete his own mission of revenge, which is a great and just cause.
Her speech is nothing, Yet the unshaped use of it doth move The hearers to collection; they yawn at it, And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts, Which, as her winks, and nods, and gestures yield them, disturbed way piece together Indeed would make one think there might be thought, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily. By his cockle hat and' staff And his sandal shoon. Nay, pray you mark. KING: How do you, pretty lady? They say the owl was a baker's daughter. God be at your table! KING: Conceit upon her father. Then up he rose and donn'd his clothes, And dupp'd the chamber door, Let in the maid, that out a maid Never departed more.
Young men will do't if they come to't, By cock, they are to blame. Quoth she, 'Before you tumbled me, contraction for Jesus slang variant for God You promis'd me to wed. We must be patient, but I cannot choose but weep to think they would lay him i' the cold ground. My brother shall know of it, and so I thank you for your good counsel. Come, my coach! Good night, ladies, good night. Sweet ladies, good night, good night. O Gertrude, Gertrude, When sorrows come, they come not single spies, But in battalions: first, her father slain; Next, your son gone, and he most violent author Of his own just remove; the people muddied, Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whispers For good Polonius' death; and we have done but greenly In hugger-mugger to inter him; poor Ophelia confused not wisely rashly, hastily Divided from herself and her fair judgment, Without the which we are pictures, or mere beasts; Last, and as much containing as all these, Her brother is in secret come from France, Feeds on his wonder, keeps himself in clouds , holds on to suspicion rather than learning facts.
The ocean, overpeering of his list , Eats not the flats with more impetuous haste Than young Laertes, in a riotous head, O'erbears your officers. The rabble call him lord, overflowing its beaches And as the world were now but to begin, Antiquity forgot, custom not known, The ratifiers and props of every word, They cry "Choose we! Laertes shall be king! Laertes king! O, this is counter, you false Danish dogs! Sirs, stand you all without. ALL: We will, we will. Let him go, Gertrude, do not fear our person: There's such divinity doth hedge a king, That treason can but peep to what it would, Acts little of his will. Tell me, Laertes, Why thou art thus incens'd. Let him go, Gertrude.
Speak, man. KING: Dead. KING: Let him demand his fill. I'll not be juggled with. To hell, allegiance! Conscience and grace, to the profoundest pit! To this point I stand, That both the worlds. I give to negligence , Let come what comes, only I'll be reveng'd Most throughly for my father. KING: Who shall stay you? KING: Good Laertes, If you desire to know the certainty Of your dear father, is't writ in your revenge That, sweepstake , you will draw both friend and foe, Winner and loser? KING: Will you know them then? By heaven, thy madness shall be paid with weight, Till our scale turn the beam. O rose of May! O heavens, is't possible a young maid's wits Should be as mortal as an old man's life?
Nature is fine in love; and where 'tis fine, It sends some precious instance of itself a piece; Ophelia's love for her father was so deep that her grief has broken her and led her to seek him in death. O how the wheel becomes it! It is the false steward, that stole his master's daughter. And there is pansies, that's for thoughts. There's rue for you, symbols of flattery fennel and ingratitude columbines symbol of sorrow and regret and here's some for mewe may call it herb of grace o' Sundays. You may wear your rue with a difference. There's a daisy. I would give you some violets , but they wither'd all when my father died. They say he made a good end-- [ Sings. And will he not come again? No, no, he is dead, Go to thy death-bed, He never will come again.
His beard was as white as snow, All flaxen was his pole , He is gone, he is gone, pale, colorless head And we cast away moan, God ha' mercy on his soul! God b' wi' ye. Go but apart, Make choice of whom your wisest friends you will, And they shall hear and judge 'twixt you and me. If by direct or by collateral hand They find us touch'd , we will our kingdom give, at fault Our crown, our life, and all that we call ours, To you in satisfaction; but if not, By you content to lend your patience to us, And we shall jointly labor with your soul To give it due content. His means of death, his obscure funeral, No trophy, sword, nor hatchment o'er his bones, No noble rite nor formal ostentation -- Cry to be heard, as 'twere from heaven to earth, tombstone deserved ceremony That I must call't in question.
I pray you go with me. Laertes's instinctive response to the loss of his father is a sharp contrast to Hamlet's excessive deliberation. Scene VI. They say they have letters for you. There's a letter for you, sir,--it comes from the ambassador that was bound for England-- if your name be Horatio, as I am let to know it is. Ere we were two days old at sea, a pirate of very warlike appointment gave us chase. Finding ourselves too slow of sail, we put on a compelled valor, and in the grapple I boarded them. On the instant they got clear of our ship, so I alone became their prisoner. They have dealt with me like thieves of mercy , but they knew what they did; I am to do a good turn for them. Let the King have the letters I have sent, and repair thou to me with as much speed as thou wouldst fly death.
I have words to speak in thine ear will make thee dumb; yet are they much too kindly, helpful thieves light for the bore of the matter. These good fellows will bring thee where I am. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern hold their course for England, of them I have much to tell thee. He that thou knowest thine, Hamlet. But tell me Why you proceeded not against these feats, So criminal and so capital in nature, As by your safety, greatness, wisdom, all things else You mainly were stirr'd up. The Queen his mother weak Lives almost by his looks, and for myself-- My virtue or my plague, be it either which-- She is so conjunctive to my life and soul, That, as the star moves not but in his sphere, I could not but by her.
The other motive, Why to a public count I might not go, Is the great love the general gender bear him; Who, dipping all his faults in their affection, Work, like the spring that turneth wood to stone, Convert his gyves to graces; so that my arrows, Too slightly timber'd for so loud a wind, Would have reverted to my bow again, But not where I have aim'd them. KING: Break not your sleeps for that. You must not think That we are made of stuff so flat and dull That we can let our beard be shook with danger And think it pastime.
You shortly shall hear more. What news? Claudius is telling Laertes that he should not think Claudius would allow Hamlet's disrespectful and murderous behavior to go unpunished. Who brought them? They were given me by Claudio. He receiv'd them him that brought them. KING: Laertes, you shall hear them. To-morrow shall I beg leave to see your kingly eyes, alone; without belongings when I shall, first asking your pardon thereunto , recount the occasions of my sudden and more strange return. Are all the rest come back? Or is it some abuse, and no such thing? And in a postscript here, he says "alone. But let him come, It warms the very sickness in my heart handwriting ; signature That I shall live and tell him to his teeth, 'Thus didst thou.
KING: To thine own peace. If he be now return'd As checking at his voyage, and that he means No more to undertake it, I will work him To an exploit, now ripe in my device, Under the which he shall not choose but fall; And for his death no wind of blame shall breathe; But even his mother shall uncharge the practice And call it accident. KING: It falls right. You have been talk'd of since your travel much, And that in Hamlet's hearing, for a quality Wherein they say you shine. Your sum of parts Did not together pluck such envy from him As did that one, and that, in my regard, Of the unworthiest siege. KING: A very riband in the cap of youth, Yet needful too; for youth no less becomes The light and careless livery that it wears Than settled age his sables and his weeds , clothing Importing health and graveness.
Two months since Here was a gentleman of Normandy: I've seen myself, and serv'd against, the French, And they can well on horseback, but this gallant Had witchcraft in't, he grew unto his seat; And to such wondrous doing brought his horse, As had he been incorps'd and demi-natur'd With the brave beast. So far he topp'd my thought That I, in forgery of shapes and tricks, Come short of what he did. KING: The very same. He is the brooch indeed jeweled pin And gem of all the nation. KING: He made confession of you; And gave you such a masterly report For art and exercise in your defense, And for your rapier most especial, That he cried out, 'twould be a sight indeed If one could match you. The scrimers of their nation He swore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, If you oppos'd them.
Sir, this report of his Did Hamlet so envenom with his envy fencers That he could nothing do but wish and beg Your sudden coming o'er to play with you. KING: Laertes, was your father dear to you? There lives within the very flame of love A kind of wick or snuff that will abate it; And nothing is at a like goodness still ; Nothing stays the same forever For goodness, growing to a plurisy , Dies in his own too much. That we would do, We should do when we would; for this "would" changes, And hath abatements and delays as many As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents, excess, abundance. I bought an unction of a mountebank , So mortal that, but dip a knife in it, Where it draws blood no cataplasm so rare, Collected from all simples that have virtue ointment charlatan, quack plants with curing powers Under the moon, can save the thing from death This is but scratch'd withal.
I'll touch my point With this contagion, that if I gall him slightly, It may be death. If this should fail, And that our drift look through our bad performance, 'Twere better not assay'd; therefore this project Should have a back or second, that might hold If this did blast in proof. Soft, let me see. We'll make a solemn wager on your cunnings-- I ha't! When in your motion you are hot and dry,-- As make your bouts more violent to that end,-- And that he calls for drink, I'll have prepar'd him A chalice for the nonce ; whereon but sipping, If he by chance escape your venom'd stuck, Our purpose may hold there. But stay, what noise? Your sister's drown'd, Laertes.
O, where? QUEEN: There is a willow grows askaunt the brook, That shows his hoary leaves in the glassy stream; beside gray with age Therewith fantastic garlands did she make Of crowflowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples , That liberal shepherds give a grosser name, But our cull-cold maids do dead men's fingers call them. There, on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds from its branches English orchids that bloom in spring Clamb'ring to hang, an envious sliver broke; When down her weedy trophies and herself Fell in the weeping brook.
Her clothes spread wide, And mermaid-like awhile they bore her up, Which time she chaunted snatches of old lauds ; songs of praise As one incapable of her own distress, Or like a creature native and indu'd Unto that element. But long it could not be Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, Pull'd the poor wretch from her melodious lay To muddy death. Adieu, my lord, I have a speech of fire that fain would blaze, But that this folly drowns it. How much I had to do to calm his rage! Now fear I this will give it start again, Therefore let's follow.
The news of Ophelia's drowning serves as another instance of Shakespeare's interest in the theme of appearances versus reality. It poses the question of whether her madness led to an accidental death or whether her grief caused her to commit suicide. He death also reignites Laertes's rage so that Claudius worries that the plan he hatched for a duel between Laertes and Hamlet might unravel. ACT V. A churchyard. The crowner hath sate on her, and finds it Christian burial.
For here lies the point: if I drown myself wittingly, it argues an act, and an act hath three branches-- it is to act, to do, and to perform, argal, she drowned herself wittingly. Here lies the water; good. Here stands the man; good. If the man go to this water and drown himself, it is, will he, nill he , he goes, mark you that. But if the water come to him and drown him, he drowns not himself; argal, he that is not guilty of his own death shortens not his own life Come, my spade. There is no ancient gentlemen but gardeners, ditchers, and grave-makers: they hold up Adam's profession. How dost thou understand the Scripture? The Scripture says Adam digg'd: could he dig without arms? The gallows does well; but how does it well? It does well to those that do ill.
Now, thou dost ill to say the gallows is built stronger than the church; argal, the gallows may do well to thee. Go, get thee in; fetch me a sup of liquor. He sings at grave-making. How the knave jowls it to the ground, as if 'twere Cain's jawbone, that did the first murder! This might be the pate of a politician, throws head or skull which this ass now o'erreaches, one that would circumvent God, might it not? How dost thou, sweet lord? Here's fine revolution, missing the lower jawbone head and we had the trick to see't. Did these bones cost no more the breeding but to play at loggets with 'em? Mine ache to think on't. Why may not that be the skull of a lawyer?
Where be his quiddities now, his quillities , his cases, his tenures , and his tricks? This fellow might be in's time a great buyer of land, with his statutes, his recognizances, his fines, his double vouchers, his recoveries. Is this the fine of his fines, and the recovery of his recoveries, to have his fine head end pate full of fine dirt? Will his vouchers vouch him no more of his purchases, and double ones too, than the length and breadth of a pair of indentures ? The very conveyances of his lands will scarcely lie in this box , and must the inheritor himself have no more, ha?
I will speak to this fellow. Whose grave's this, sirrah? We must speak by the card, or equivocation will undo us. By the Lord, Horatio, these three years I have took note of it: the age is grown so picked that the toe of the peasant comes so near the heel of the courtier he galls his kibe. Every fool can tell that. It was the very day that young Hamlet was born--he that is mad, and sent into England. He shall recover his wits there, or if he do not, it's no great matter there. I have been sexton here, man and boy, thirty years.
A tanner will last you nine year. Here's a skull now hath lain in the earth three-and-twenty years. Whose do you think it was? He pour'd a flagon of Rhenish on my head once. This same skull, sir, was Yorick's skull, the King's jester. I knew him, Horatio, a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy. He hath borne me on his back a thousand times, and now, how abhorred in my imagination it is!
Here hung those lips that I have kiss'd I know not how oft. Where be your gibes now, your gambols, your songs, your flashes of merriment, that were wont to set the table on a roar? Not one now, to mock your own grinning-- quite chop-fallen ? Now, get you to my lady's chamber, and tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to this 1 jawless 2 dejected favor she must come; make her laugh at that. Why may not imagination trace the noble dust of Alexander till he find it stopping a bung-hole? HAMLET No, faith, not a jot; but to follow him thither with modesty enough, and likelihood to lead it: as thus: Alexander died, Alexander was buried, Alexander returneth to dust; the dust is earth; of earth we make loam ; and why of that loam whereto he a muddy mix of wet clay, sand, straw, etc.
Imperious Caesar, dead and turn'd to clay, Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. O, that that earth which kept the world in awe Should patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw! Who is that they follow? And with such maimed rites? Her death was doubtful; And but that great command o'ersways the order, She should in ground unsanctified been lodg'd Till the last trumpet; for charitable prayers, Shards, flints, and pebbles should be thrown on her, Yet here she is allowed her virgin crants , Her maiden strewments , and the bringing home Of bell and burial. I thought thy bride-bed to have deck'd, sweet maid, And not have strew'd thy grave. Hold off the earth a while, Till I have caught her once more in mine arms.
This is I, Hamlet the Dane! For, though I am not splenetive and rash, Yet have I in me something dangerous, Which let thy wiseness fear. Hold off thy hand! KING: Pluck them asunder. ALL: Gentlemen! Forty thousand brothers Could not, with all their quantity of love Make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her? Woo't fight? Woo't fast? Woo't tear thyself? Woo't drink up eisel? I'll do't. Dost thou come here to whine? Be buried quick with her, and so will I: And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw Millions of acres on us, till our ground, Singeing his pate against the burning zone , the sun Make Ossa like a wart!
Nay, an thou'lt mouth, I'll rant as well as thou. QUEEN: This is mere madness: And thus a while the fit will work on him; Anon, as patient as the female dove, Greek mountains near Pelion and Olympus When that her golden couplets are disclosed, His silence will sit drooping. I lov'd you ever. This grave shall have a living monument. An hour of quiet shortly shall we see; Till then in patience our proceeding be. The first scene sets custom and Church rule against what is just. The banter between the clowns and, later, Laertes's confrontation with the funeral official explains why Ophelia is denied full burial rites though she was a pure and innocent soul. The seemingly foolish conversation of the clowns should not be discounted as simply comic relief.
It points to hypocrisy of the time in which the play was written. Ophelia, as the obedient daughter, has turned away love and then lost the father she adored. Her grief equals and mimics Hamlet's. Both have murdered fathers, and both are believed to be mad. Is it appearance or reality? Hamlet has questioned on several occasions whether it is better "to be or not to be," but he has not been able to act upon those suicidal thoughts. His indecision on this matter and his inaction in carrying out his revenge have contributed to Ophelia's death. Methought I lay Worse than the mutines in the bilboes Rashly-- rebels against authority shackles or chains And prais'd be rashness for it--let us know Our indiscretion sometime serves us well When our deep plots do pall and that should teach us There's a divinity that shapes our ends , Rough-hew them how we will-- weaken, amount to nothing determines our fate HORATIO: That is most certain.
HAMLET: Up from my cabin, My sea-gown scarf'd about me, in the dark Grop'd I to find out them: had my desire, Finger'd their packet; and in fine withdrew To mine own room again, making so bold, My fears forgetting manners, to unseal Their grand commission; where I found, Horatio, Ah royal knavery! But wilt thou bear me how I did proceed? I sat me down; Devis'd a new commission; wrote it fair. I once did hold it, as our statists do, A baseness to write fair, and labour'd much state officials a skill suitable for men of low rank How to forget that learning; but, sir, now It did me yeoman's service. Wilt thou know The effect of what I wrote?
HAMLET: An earnest conjuration from the King, loyal, valiant service As England was his faithful tributary, As love between them like the palm might flourish, As peace should still her wheaten garland wear And stand a comma 'tween their amities, And many such-like as's of great charge, That, on the view and knowing of these contents, Without debatement further, more or less, He should the bearers put to sudden death, Not shrivingtime allow'd.
I had my father's signet in my purse, Which was the model of that Danish seal: Folded the writ up in the form of the other Subscrib'd it, gave't the impression, plac'd it safely, The changeling never known Now, the next day Was our sea-fight; and what to this was sequent Thou knowest already. HAMLET: Why, man, they did make love to this employment, exchanged letters the switch was undiscovered go to their death They are not near my conscience. Their defeat Does by their own insinuation grow.
HAMLET: Does it not, thinks't thee, stand me now upon-- He that hath kill'd my king, and whor'd my mother, Popp'd in between the election and my hopes; Thrown out his angle for my proper life, took over as King of Denmark and robbed me of my rightful title And with such coz'nage--is't not perfect conscience To quit him with this arm? I'll court his favors. But sure the bravery of his grief did put me Into a towering passion. Dost know this water-fly? He hath much land, and fertile, let a beast be lord of beasts, and his crib shall stand at the King's mess Put your Osric gains entrance to the King's circle because he is wealthy, not because he is worthy.
My lord, his Majesty bade me signify to you that he has laid a great wager on your head. Sir, here is newly come to court Laertes, believe me, an absolute gentleman, full of most excellent differences, of very soft society and great showing : indeed; to speak feelingly of him, he is the card or calendar of gentry ; for you shall find in him the handsome appearance model gentlemanliness continent of what part a gentleman would see. HAMLET: Sir, his definement suffers no perdition in you, though I know to divide him inventorially would dizzy the arithmetic of memory, and yet but yaw neither, in respect of his quick sail.
But, in the verity of extolment , I take him to be a soul of great one possessing a gentleman's demeanar loss nautical term, to steer off course praise article, and his infusion of such dearth and rareness as, to make true diction of him, his semblable is his mirror, and who else would trace him, his umbrage , nothing more. Why do we wrap the gentleman in our more the very example of quality he is without equal only his mirror image could be as great shadow "What is your point, sir? You will to't, sir, really. Well, sir? OSRIC: I mean, sir, for his weapon; but in the imputation laid on him by them, in his meed he's unfellowed. OSRIC: The King, sir, hath wager'd with him six Barbary horses, skill against the which he has impawned , as I take it, six French rapiers and poniards, with their assigns, as girdle, hangers , and so.
Three of the carriages , in faith, are very dear to fancy, very responsive to the hilts, most delicate carriages, and of very liberal conceit. It is hard to resist speculation that in giving this schoolboy his own name, Shakespeare was at least partly looking back to his own childhood. Evans takes William through some Latin exercises, including double translation, in which the pupil translates from Latin into English and then back into Latin:.
This dialogue is on one level a simple joke but can also be read in more complex ways. Alternatively, it may be that his mind spontaneously flits sideways to think laterally; or it may be that he is deliberately and subversively mocking Evans. It is by no means clear which of them has the upper hand. This overtaking of the older generation by the young might include not only parents and their friends, but also the schoolmaster himself. Throughout this scene Evans does not seem significantly more learned or intelligent than his young charge, and there is good reason to think that as William grows up he will become the more intellectually advanced of the two. Even when William forgets or mistakes his answers, these diversions seem like implicit comments on the tedium and restriction of the whole catechetical exercise.
William can march through his Latin grammar successfully when he puts his mind to it, but much of the time his mind is wandering elsewhere, presumably to more interesting territory, such as when he will be released to play. Yet at the same time what happened to them at school, or rather how they interacted with the forms of instruction that they encountered at school, was clearly a formative experience for them as authors. Burrow , Hinch , Monfasani Similarly with grammar-school education, even if the professed intention was often the training up of dutiful citizens, the skills and knowledge conferred did not necessarily have this outcome — indeed in some cases manifestly had unintended and unexpected consequences. Here is a means of reconciling the high claims made for Elizabethan grammar-school education by literary critics with the more limited and critical accounts of it given by educational historians: incipient writers at once learned valuable skills for their trade at school, and exceeded or even resisted or rejected lessons learned at school.
In this many schoolmasters of the period evidently succeeded. The sheer number of Elizabethan authors who attended grammar schools points to a connection between a grammar-school education and later literary achievement, but this connection must have been complicated, not necessarily a smooth transition from skills and training enthusiastically imbibed at school to later literary success. Thinking about just what it was that happened in the Elizabethan classroom, and the various processes by which this might have been connected to the later literary achievements of former grammar-school pupils, highlights the extreme complexity of the relations between education and creativity in general, a continuing issue for us today.
Authors educated at grammar schools who did not proceed to university or the Inns of Court. Thomas Dekker , b. Ben Jonson , b. Thomas Kyd , bap. William Shakespeare , bap. Authors educated at grammar schools who did proceed to university or the Inns of Court. Robert Greene , bap. Fulke Greville , b. Matriculated at Jesus College, Cambridge but left without a degree. Thomas Lodge , b. John Lyly , b. Christopher Marlowe , bap. George Peele , bap. Philip Sidney , b. Attended Christ Church, Oxford but did not take a degree. Edmund Spenser , b. John Webster , b. Proceeded to Middle Temple. Cases where pre-university education unknown but progression to university makes grammar-school education likely.
Samuel Daniel , b. Thomas Heywood , b. John Marston , bap. Thomas Middleton , bap. George Chapman , b. John Donne , b. Michael Drayton , b. Thomas Nashe , bap. Alexander, Michael Van Cleave. Altman, Joel B. Baldwin, T. Barker, William. Burrow, Colin. Bushnell, Rebecca W. Coote, Edmund. The English schoole-maister teaching all his scholers, the order of distinct reading, and true writing our English tongue. Cressy, David. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dolven, Jeff.
Donaldson, Ian. Enterline, Lynn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Grafton, Anthony and Lisa Jardine. Harrison, William. Hinch, Jim. Holland, Peter. Lyne, Raphael. Mack, Peter. Elizabethan Rhetoric: Theory and Practice. Maley, Willy. Monfasani, John. Potter, Lois. Rhodes, Neil. Kindle ebook. Shakespeare, William. The Norton Shakespeare , gen. Stephen Greenblatt, 3rd edn New York: Norton. Simon, Joan. Stone, Lawrence. Thorne, Alison. Only the winner of this struggle in the end is not Lingua. She is exposed as a presumptuous, talkative woman who needs to be silenced. Tomkis is reaffirming a maxim from the period that is all too familiar to feminist scholars, that women should be silent Hannay 4. However, the play also dramatises another narrative that often implicitly underpins the work of book historians and historians of reading: that this period saw a shift from the ear to the eye as the primary sense of understanding.
I propose that we do. But there are uncomfortable questions we also need to ask. Anne Askew spoke the Word of God more than a century before Trapnel, in the early years of the English Reformation, the s; she was burned at the stake at Smithfield in This has already been achieved, although a question remains about whether she could have managed to write about her interrogations after she had been tortured. That is, she may have dictated rather than written down what she remembered. Or to put this another way, it privileges recitation over textual citation.
Askew ca. Askew was arrested, interrogated and tortured in the Tower of London, then burned at the stake in , but the record of her two interrogations in and was smuggled out of her prison cell and edited by the Reformation propagandist, John Bale, who also provided a paratextual apparatus framing and interpreting it. In the text Askew recalls what she was asked, by whom, and how she answered. One scholar who explored the Examinations in the light of these developments was Patricia Pender. But how exactly did she read? Attention to the selection and re-use of sentences usually supposes a model of silent study: the reader pores over her book, perhaps marking sentences in the margin with a pen so she can find them again, perhaps adding them to a commonplace book.
Later Protestant readers would use the navigational aids of the Geneva Bible — the first Bible to divide the text into numbered verses — to locate them. Yet, by the same token, we might well ask what is lost when we give up the everyday, often personal language of feminist scholarship of the s. It is not just that the ability to detach sentences — or to read discontinuously — is usually regarded as the product of silent study.
Thus, she focuses on the silent exchange between Askew in Lincoln Cathedral, when she is reading the public Bible, and the priests who approached her. But she may also have read it aloud, perhaps murmuring the words as she followed the text. It is also true that her most chastening responses to her interrogators are wordless. She also repeatedly thwarts her interrogators by not telling them what they long to hear.
In fact, she often has little to say. And Salomon sayth, that a woman of fewe wordes, is a gyfte of God. Askew is reminding her rhetorically-trained interrogators that she lacks eloquence, and that she fulfils the ideal of the meek, silent woman. Askew does not utter — or speak — with skill, she confesses. She has not received formal training in rhetoric at grammar school or university. But she is far from silent. This act of uttering, moreover, is not passive but full of knowledge and understanding. This time she finds authority for what she says in the words of St Paul:. Then the Byshoppes chaunceller rebuked me, and sayd, that I was moche to blame for utterynge the scriptures.
For S. Paule he sayd forbode women to speake or to talke of the worde of God. I answered hym, that I knewe Paules meanyinge so well as he, whych is, i. Corinthiorum xiiii. And then I asked hym, how manye women he had seane, go into the pulpett and preache. He sayde, he never sawe non. Then I sayd, he ought to fynde no faute in poore women, except they had offended the lawe. Examinations And again, the interplay between saying and knowing is foregrounded. She has not just absorbed and memorised Scripture, by whatever method; she also breathes or speaks it, bodying it forth.
Examinations aims to reverse this in several different ways. In his own responses, moreover, he turns up the volume. Electe are we of God sayth Peter through the sanctyfyenge of the sprete. Petri i. In everye true Christen belever dwelleth the sprete of God. Their sowles are the santyfyed temples of the holye Ghost. He that hath not the sprete of Christ sayth Paule is non of Christes, Roma. To them is the holye Ghost geven, whych heareth the Gospell and beleveth it, and not unto them whych wyll be justyfyed by their workes. All these worthye scrpytures confirme her saynge. Indeed, as this last example should make clear, it is Bale, not Askew, who is the scholarly reader represented in Examinations.
No matter how much Askew has studied the Bible, Bale, we are shown, has studied it more. More often, though, she paraphrases Scripture, and it is Bale who provides a reference to make it known that she speaks the Word of God. It is not that he is dismissive of her ability to cite chapters of the Bible; it is just that he values more her ability to recite Scripture from memory, without embellishment since this makes her the living embodiment of the Word of God to whom her interrogators should listen. In effect she is reading aloud the Bible without the book. In fact, the opposite is true. A literary example that Bale may have had in mind can help us to understand why.
To be sure, the Protestant firebrand Bale could not seem more different to the moderate, Catholic reformer, Erasmus. In the same year, she adds, Bale was completing his own paraphrase of one of the books of the New Testament that Erasmus had left out, Revelation: Image of Both Churches Minton Moriae Encomium , translated into English by Thomas Chaloner just a couple of years later, sets out in a rather unconventional way to make sense of this simple — or foolish — idea, that the meaning of the Bible is best communicated not with learned commentaries but with an ordinary, speaking voice.
This is one of the arguments that Bale is also making in his very different and much less playful way in Examinations. Like Erasmus, moreover, he uses a feminine voice to make the case. If this seems a lightweight subject suitable only for Folly herself, as it should do, then we may be surprised to find ourselves listening more attentively later in her speech when she turns to the poor delivery of university schoolmen and divines. Late in her oration, Folly dramatises the sharp voice of a friar-preacher asserting that heretics should be burned at the stake. And she sends up the way in which learned divines stretch the literal meaning of Scripture with their complicated, allegorical commentaries Erasmus R3 r-v ; Q4 r-v , R1 r.
One explanation, offered by Elizabeth D. The argument of Moriae Encomium — that reading the bible aloud in a plain speaking voice reveals its meaning much more readily than does the commentary of erudite divines — is best made by an obviously foolish speaker, literate but without a formal university education: a woman. When Folly speaks the same verses over which the divines labour, their literal meaning is made clear. But my aim to recover the physical voice of Askew will no doubt seem a foolhardy enterprise. Even in these earlier studies it was not the real voice that scholars were hoping to recover after all these centuries. We can see it again even more clearly in an essay by Boyd M. In these last exercises, it is the personae of women that dominate: Hecuba, Niobe, Andromache, Medea, Cleopatra Enterline It cannot only have been their different quality.
But there is so much more to an expressive voice than this. Equally important is the emotional range of the classical, literary female voices available for imitation and the subject position they represent. What strength can always last? What power maie always stande? Here, then, is a conundrum. Clarke Rather as the Hecuba example suggests, they carry emotion from a subject position not usually available to a male writer. In the absence of her original manuscript we cannot know whether he interfered with her text or not. In any case, it is generally accepted that the testimony is hers. It also preoccupied both Bale and Askew. Be it knowne sayth he to all men, that I Anne Askewe, do confesse thys to be my faythe and beleve, notwithstandynge my reportes made afore to the contrarye.
I beleve that they whych are howseled [received communion] at the hands of a prest, whether hys conversacyon be good or not, de receyve the bodye and bloude of Christ in substaunce reallye. Also I do beleve it after the consecracyon, whether it be receyved or reserved, to be no lesse than the verye bodye and bloude of Christ in substaunce. Fynallye I do beleve in thys and all other sacraments of the holye churche, in all poyntes accordynge to the olde catholyck faythe of the same.
In witnesse wherof, I the seyd Anne have subscrybed my name. This is an emphatically oral event. It is also a very odd event. Askew is being asked to endorse a doctrinal point of Roman Catholicism to which she does not assent, that the sacrament is the body of Christ. But it is odd for another reason since it involves layers of reported speech. Yet, it is Askew who is sharing the story — perhaps even dictating it — and this means that she is ventriloquizing Bonner ventriloquizing her, and exposing his attempt to speak through her.
Her resistance is quietly evident. Part of his purpose in Examinations, I argued earlier, is to stop the silencing of the Reformation, and he does this in various ways. This includes reminding us at every opportunity, and in his own distinctively loud voice, just how corrupt are the Pope and his minions. But another way he does this is to turn Askew into an active ventriloquist. Psalme of David, called. The title is wonderfully provocative. However, psalms are performance scripts, and their meaning is activated when they are said or sung. The meaning of this psalm is also activated once we understand, not so much that Askew wrote it — if she did — but that she voiced it.
When she did so, she breathed life into King David even as she stands in for him, ensuring that the link between God and his favoured people is not broken. For thy names sake, be my refuge, And in thy truthe, my quarrell judge. Before the lorde lete me be hearde, And with faver my tale regarde Loo, faythlesse men, agaynst me ryse, And for thy sake, my deathe practyse. My lyfe they seke, with mayne and myght Whych have not the, afore their syght Yet helpest thu me, in thys dystresse, Savynge my sowle, from cruelnesse. I wote thu wylt revenge my wronge, And vysyte them, ere it be longe.
I wyll therfor, my whole hart bende, Thy gracyouse name lorde to commende. From evyll thu hast, delyvered me, Declarynge what, myne enmyes be. Prayse to God. This is a female-voiced complaint with a difference. We are not reading a male author impersonating a woman, say the defeated Queen of Troy, Hecuba. Unless we pay attention to the performative emphasis in the Examinations we will continue to overlook this. One of the most forceful contributions to this defence, which has been recognized by feminist scholars, came a century later. Fell contests the same misreading of Corinthians 1. This is why the voice matters to a feminist campaigner like Naomi Wolf.
Instead of liberating women, and men, to use the full range of intonation and colour, has the new tyranny of huskiness made women with higher voices feel inadequate? The voice may be ephemeral but it is also curiously material or bodily. It emanates from within us, and it touches those who hear it, evoking feelings, positive and negative, producing actions.
It mattered to women too if we learn to listen, as I have been proposing. I am grateful to Alison Thorne, who first drew my attention to the rhetorical power of the female literary voice, and to Richard Wistreich and Felicity Laurence, both of them musicologists and professional singers, who helped me to understand the power of the physical voice. For discussion of the vocal range offered by the female voice see Trill See also Kerrigan ; Clarke The Examinations of Anne Askew.
Elaine V. Beilin, Elaine V. Berry, Boyd M. Bloom, Gina. Brayman-Hackel, Heidi. Cambers, Andrew. Clarke, Danielle. Cohen, Matt. Connor, Steven. Crawford, Julie. Cummings, Brian. Dolor, Mladan. Erasmus, Desiderius. The first tome or volume of the Paraphrase of Erasmus upon the Newe Testamente. Nicholas Udall London. Fell, Margaret. Goldberg, Jonathan.
Green, Monica H. Hamlin, Hannibal. Hannay, Margaret Patterson ed. Harvey, Elizabeth D. Hunt, Arnold. Karpf, Anne. Kemp, Theresa D. Kerrigan, John. Lamb, Mary Ellen. Minton, Gretchen E.. Molekamp, Femke. Orgel, Stephen. Parker, Matthew. The whole Psalter translated into English Metre, which contayneth an hundred and fifty Psalmes London. Pearson, Jacqueline. Pender, Patricia. Raymond, Joad. Simpson, James. Smith, Rosalind. Snook, Edith. Spentzou, Efrossini. Stallybrass, Peter. Straznicky, Marta. Tomkis, Thomas. Lingua: or The combat of the tongue, And the five senses for superiority. A pleasant comoedie London.
Trill, Suzanne. Wolfe, Naomi. Accessed 25 June His work has often been marginalised and even denigrated, yet, his work has begun to be profitably studied for its subject matter. His works have been variously cited to substantiate the importance of numerous aspects of early modern culture, ranging from: experiences and representations of the deaf; the invention and manipulation of genres; commendation of geographical exploration; the celebration of cuckoldry; advice manuals to mothers; and the history of penitential verse Cockayne ; Fowler ; Fuller ; McEachern ; Poole ; Gazzard The following essay continues in this tradition of critical reclamation.
This examination will help to demonstrate how his work modifies or deviates from early modern paradigms of mind and interiority as conceived in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writing. In this meditative poem, the poetic speaker uses the ghostly vision of Mary to contemplate the constraints put upon the mind to conceive of the interior and exterior world. It is able to house the vision of Mary Magdalene, allowing for the poetic speaker to delineate the cathartic truth of penitential grief for himself and his intended audience. When he does turn to the inner landscape of the mind he places it in the dream-world … Breton uses poetic landscape the way the theatre might — a prop against which to present his text, or as emblem, not as a method of eliciting a response which gives him insights into his own psychological state Sweeney Breton does, however, continuously reflect on the nature of mental experience through a variety of his poetical works, and the greater implications of psychological inquiry for his own mind and those who might read his poetry.
D4 r in accordance with female modes of penitential practice. E4 v -F1 r. This persona is thus left in almost complete subservience to internal sorrow and external inspiration. The creation of mental landscapes are, therefore, integral to the development of the narrative in Workes of a Young Wyt — the piece as a whole is framed by the sustained conceit of the brain as arable land which may produce poetic fruit or grain. A3 r -A3 v. The narrator opens the piece by providing a brief exposition on the qualities of this country the language, religion, dress, and social formalities adhered to. C4 v to find a number of dreams that the deceased had set down in poesy. This seemingly absurd poetic legacy is realised in the recital of eleven contemplative verse fables written in iambic heptameter.
As Garrett Sullivan observes, sleep and dreaming in this period were often equated with both the binding of the senses and the overindulgence of them:. In the case of sleep-as-sensory binding, reason is literally disabled as the body slumbers; in that of sleep-as-sensory-overindulgence, reason fails to assert authority over a body whose intemperance manifests itself during both sleep and waking. Sullivan Nor do they conform to the predictive dreams that early modern dream theorists such as Julius Caesar Scalinger explicate while examining the Aristotelian tradition of dream interpretation in his work New Epigrams Haugen , Neither do they adhere to the divine or politically portentous dreams which Thomas Hill explores in The Most Pleasant Art of the Interpretation of Dreams The foolish poetic dreamer is always at an advantageous position to be entertained or titillated from the frequently violent interaction between the animals, avoiding any psychic harm from the episodes; he merely views, rather than interacts.
The sequence ultimately seems to be bound together through the reiterated topoi of retributive violence enacted upon or by each individual group of animals mentioned, as well as the schadenfreude that the fool derives from these creations of his mind. C4 v through an analysis of his dreams. Its narrative arc is directed towards introspective obscurity, rather than on an illuminating expansion on the quality of mental experience.
The narrative thrust of this piece is directed toward analysing the unknown qualities of the human psyche. C3 v will result in the destitution of the mental faculties as well as the financial poverty of any aspiring gallant or writer. A2 r who might read this text. B1 r of the poem and the succeeding section of the book, Toyes of an Idle Head , adheres to this densely alliterative alternation between fourteeners and alexandrines.
Through this popular verse form, Breton explicitly denigrates his own poetic powers, questioning the efficacy of his own verse to instruct and delight. Navigating the Mind in The Wil of Wit. We must probe right down inside and find out what principles make things move; but since this is a deep and chancy undertaking, I would that fewer people would concern themselves with it Montaigne The will is deemed to be equally powerful and vulnerable in such a state. Your will is will; but Reason reason is. Whom Passion leads unto his death is bent. Control over the will is vital to operational harmony and peace between these personified faculties of the self.
Sole focus is placed upon the operative relationship of the wit and will of the human subject which, in turn, leads to the discovery of how they constitute and are constituted by mental space. Their subsequent exploration of the mind fittingly troubles the coherence of its organisational structure. Alas the day. I haue bin almost madde, with marching through the world, without my good guide, my freende, and Companion, my Brother, yea, my selfe. Alas, where is hee? When shall I see him? How shall I seeke him, and whither shall I walke? I was too soone wearie of him, and am now weary of my selfe without him. Breton sig. Being reunited with Wit would provide a remedy for the misery Will feels in this state of functional suspension, yet, the emptiness Will feels only occurs because of his decision to follow a path without the aid of his Wit.
B2 v — the character of Experience eventually leads Will to recognise the folly in his actions and entreats Will to seek Wit out. B3 r , but what they would do afterwards or how they would achieve their reconnection is left unaccounted for by Experience and Will alike. If we are supposed to use this discourse to help us reflect upon the intended temperance of our own wisdom and desire, the obscure correlation between these two characters of Wit and Will does not help matters.
We do, fortunately, receive a more rounded account of what this paradise entails when Wit explains to Will how he was separated from his kin. A3 v as well as the mental anguish he suffered in his journey to this destination. In spite of Will previously describing his need of Wit to achieve Paradise, it seems that Wit had apparently found it by himself without the aid of Will at all albeit he wishes that his brother were there to experience it with him.
Although this would imply that Wit would be able to achieve bliss without Will, Wit is extremely perturbed by this situation and does not enjoy paradise for what it should be, suggesting that paradise for these two faculties can only be achieved when both Wit and Will work in harmony. In these somewhat deferential sentiments, Will manages to consolidate the rift between himself and Wit. The genitive case of the Latin noun ingenium meaning the natural capacity of intelligence, or wit , here, shapes the syntax of the parting phrase. Indeed, the choice for the reader to determine which faculty is the possessor and which is the possessed informs the whole of the discourse, yet this opportunity for personal choice or judgement that is presented to the reader seems to be set at odds with the underlying didactic purpose of the work: Will is supposed to agree to obey Wit in order to achieve the good.
Their estrangement, as highlighted at the beginning of the discourse, is thus left relatively unresolved. He lacks the ability to reflect on and justify his nature to Wit. The mind then houses Wit and Will, yet it is also depicted as a space in which these mental faculties may lose themselves within, and are generated from. B5 r as previously depicted in A Floorish upon Fancie The conclusion of the narrative and the didactic imperative of its opening are set at odds with the freedom of choice that the title of the piece suggests. Finding the will and harnessing it for the good is, crucially, only achieved by a will that is willing to be ruled by our intelligence, but this goal is put in jeopardy because of the inherently wayward nature of the will itself.
Thus, in his imaginative exploration of the psyche and its inner-workings, Breton conceives of the mind as a space which may generate its own disorder, and may only find purpose through the chance collaboration of a witless Wit, and an innocent and obedient Will. Breton does not solely harness fashionable ideals of Platonic beauty and love to construct and shape the landscape of the mind, and his use of dreams also often lacks the erotic inflection usually associated with their literary deployment in the period. Rather, such fictive dream-visions, as discussed, may be used as narrative devices which serve a rhetorical function of self-deprecation, as well as a means to provide oblique satirical commentaries upon contemporaneous trends in courtly fashions and etiquette.
We must take seriously the conception and intricate depiction of mental loci found throughout his canon if we are to fully appreciate the diverse depiction of inner experience in the early modern literary tradition. Building on the use of distributed cognition theory which features in the work of Evelyn B. I propose that we give this term a new literary context — one distinct from the kind of correlation that it may potentially have with the literature of the British Romantics, or the Avant-Garde writings of the American and British Beat Generation. I contend that Nicholas Breton is an exemplary psychonaut, and that his oeuvre, as outlined above, reflects upon the nature of the mind by exploring the dynamic relationship between inner, mental experience and the spatialization of thought.
Closets, chests, caves, forts, and schools provide material focal points by which to consider the pain, grief, disappointment, and frustration associated with the attempt to quantify the dynamic development of mental processes, when stimulated by sense experience and emotional affect. Travelling through the space of the mind ultimately highlights the significance of the illogical or inconceivable facets of the early modern psyche. Nicholas Breton: Poems not hitherto reprinted. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Badir, Patricia. Bozio, Andrew. Brennan, Michael G. Breton, Nicholas. Henry E. Huntington Library, STC 2nd ed. Jones EEBO. Containing fiue discourses, the effects whereof follow.
Read and iudge London: Thomas Creede. Clark, D. Cockayne, Emily. The Historical Journal , 46 3 : Daniel, Drew. Fowler, Alastair. New Literary History , 34 2 : Fuller, Mary C. Huntington Library Quarterly , 70 1 : Gazzard, Hugh. Hannibal, Hamlin. Harrison, Matthew. Spenser Studies , 29 1 : Haugen, Kristine Louise. Renaissance Quarterly , 60 3 : Kuchar, Gary. McEachern, Claire. McInnis, David. Montaigne, Michel de. The Complete Essays , trans. Screech London: Penguin. Munro, Lucy. Poole, Kristin. Studies in English Literature, , 35 1 : The Republic , trans. Sidney, Philip. Spenser, Edmund. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Steenbergh, Kristine. Enekel Leiden: Brill : Sullivan Jr. Sweeney, Anne. Warner, J.
Wright, Thomas. The text included a reflection on what had become an axiom of political culture in the Stuart age: that poetry and libel had an interdependent relationship. To Wilson,. Wilson Not only do legal reports of the early modern period recognise the problematic growth of libel, but recent scholarship has made significant inroads in tracing the blossoming of verse libels as a distinct and multifaceted cultural mode, often containing licentious accounts of individuals or political events Hawarde, Reportes : Indeed, the developing vehicle of the verse libel rapidly became, as Andrew McRae notes, a recognised feature of political and literary culture in the Stuart age a: 1.
These often pithy little poems were naturally anathema to the law, not least because they were characterised by their invariably anonymous manuscript circulation. Instead, it emerged gradually, and was met with a flexible legal system that was willing to prosecute anyone who could be found to have knowledge of material deemed seditious or slanderous, whether they were its creators or not.
In order to understand the rise of these texts, which were so problematic to the Stuart regime and worthy of exasperated recognition by Wilson , it is useful to consider the varied means by which slanderous, libellous and seditious discourses were disseminated and countered during the pre-Stuart period Bellany a: Rather, libel and slander flourished in the Tudor political and domestic spheres, notwithstanding the nascence of the formalised, anonymous verse libel.
Indeed, the blossoming of this particular form is arguably a product of pre-Stuart experimentation involving various means of disseminating slanderous discourse, as well as the testing of the power of authority to curb dissent. If accused of slander, one could plead the truth of the words spoken provided it could be proven , or else plead misinterpretation, with the principle of mitior sensus literally, the least sense inviting an increasing number of defendants to claim that their words had been intended without malice.
It is tempting to think that these words had to be false in order to be slanderous, but in the period there was a hardening of legal opinion which resulted in the belief that true slanders against superiors were worse than false slanders, because they laid bare the faults of an ordered society and incited disorder. During the reign of Elizabeth, litigators and judges grappled with a variety of laws and statutes in punishing slander, and it was not until the subsequent reign that Edward Coke was to provide a definitive common law remedy known as seditious, or criminal, libel , which took the opportunity to clarify ideas and autocratic beliefs about slander, sedition and libel, the proper prosecution of which had been the cause of vexation throughout the previous reign.
Plebeian disputes involving injurious words spoken between neighbours were treated by the book — truth was an acceptable defence and the rule of mitior sensus was encouraged by judges eager to stem the flow of frivolous lawsuits. Further, authorities were keen to find and prosecute anyone involved in the production and dissemination of any material they deemed slanderous. Poets, critics, and those who sought to use transgressive language attempted to benefit from the slipperiness of the law. Some sought to adopt the rhetoric of counsel.
Elizabeth and the Croune of England Others invoked the classical provenance of satire. Aiding such efforts were illicit presses, with perhaps the most famous example of Elizabethan usage of illicit printing presses being the Martin Marprelate affair ofIn these campaigns Thomas Esmond was All The Tears remarked for duelling, All The Tears, vice, and play, than for any All The Tears gallantry in the field, and came All The Tears to England, like many another English gentleman who has travelled, with a All The Tears by no means improved by his foreign experience. Who is All The Tears they follow? I How Did The Modern Revolution Impact The World love you All The Tears.