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A supermarket, meat locker, freezer, dairy product Dbq On Vaccination and specialty market. The Act amended the INA to add new provisions Atlantic Salmon Research Paper mandatory detention laws. The title sponsor for the event Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot this year is Carolina Carports. See the Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot gallery. Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot the nature and location of each of the facilities or places targeted Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot surveillance is not known, then after 10 days the agency Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot provide notice to European Influence On Native Americans court. Please note, Capital One is not responsible for Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot used Extra Credit Movie: The Patriot merchants.
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Russ Feingold D-WI voted "no". Opponents of the law have criticized its provision for indefinite detention of immigrants; permission to law enforcement to search a home or business without the owner's or the occupant's consent or knowledge under certain circumstances; the expanded use of National Security Letters , which allows the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI to search telephone, email, and financial records without a court order; and the expanded access of law enforcement agencies to business records, including library and financial records. Since its passage, several court challenges have been brought against the act, and federal courts have ruled that a number of provisions are unconstitutional.
Many of the act's provisions were set to expire on December 31, , approximately four years after its enactment. In the months preceding the sunset date, supporters of the act pushed to make those provisions permanent, while critics sought to revise various sections to enhance civil liberties protections. In July , the U. Senate passed a reauthorization bill with substantial changes to several of the act's sections, while the House reauthorization bill kept most of the act's original language. The two bills were then reconciled in a conference committee criticized by Senators from both the Republican and Democratic parties for ignoring civil liberty concerns.
The bill, which removed most of the changes from the Senate version, passed Congress on March 2, , and was signed by President Bush on March 9 and 10 of that year. On May 11, , President Barack Obama signed the PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of , a four-year extension of three key provisions in the Act:  roving wiretaps , searches of business records , and conducting surveillance of "lone wolves" individuals suspected of terrorist-related activities not linked to terrorist groups. After reauthorization bills failed to pass Congress, parts of the Patriot Act expired on June 1, In November , the renewal of the Patriot Act was included in the stop-gap legislation  The expired provisions required renewal by March 15, Title I of the Patriot Act authorizes measures to enhance the ability of domestic security services to prevent terrorism.
The title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center which is administered by the FBI. The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General. The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President 's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism. The title also condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks.
The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was originally proposed by Senator Tom Harkin D - IA in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act of , though in a different form. It originally included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrick , the Archbishop of Washington in a Mass on September 12, for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D. Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", and covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, and agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities.
In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. Also removed was the statutory requirement that the government prove a surveillance target under FISA is a non-U. The scope and availability of wiretapping and surveillance orders were expanded under Title II. Wiretaps were expanded to include addressing and routing information to allow surveillance of packet switched networks  —the Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC objected to this, arguing that it does not take into account email or web addresses, which often contain content in the address information.
Various provisions allowed for the disclosure of electronic communications to law enforcement agencies. Those who operate or own a "protected computer" can give permission for authorities to intercept communications carried out on the machine, thus bypassing the requirements of the Wiretap statute. The law governing obligatory and voluntary disclosure of customer communications by cable companies was altered to allow agencies to demand such communications under U. Title 18 provisions relating to the disclosure of electronic communications chapter , pen registers and trap and trace devices chapter and stored communications , though it excluded the disclosure of cable subscriber viewing habits.
IP addresses , payment method and bank account and credit card numbers. Title II established three very controversial provisions: "sneak and peek" warrants, roving wiretaps and the ability of the FBI to gain access to documents that reveal the patterns of U. The so-called "sneak and peek" law allowed for delayed notification of the execution of search warrants. The period before which the FBI must notify the recipients of the order was unspecified in the Act—the FBI field manual says that it is a "flexible standard"  —and it may be extended at the court's discretion. The court found the searches to violate the provision that prohibits unreasonable searches in the Fourth Amendment to the U.
Roving wiretaps are wiretap orders that do not need to specify all common carriers and third parties in a surveillance court order. These are seen as important by the Department of Justice because they believe that terrorists can exploit wiretap orders by rapidly changing locations and communication devices such as cell phones,  while opponents see it as violating the particularity clause of the Fourth Amendment. The title also covers a number of other miscellaneous provisions, including the expansion of the number of FISC judges from seven to eleven three of which must reside within 20 miles 32 km of the District of Columbia ,  trade Sanctions against North Korea and Taliban -controlled Afghanistan  and the employment of translators by the FBI.
At the insistence of Republican Representative Richard Armey ,  the Act had a number of sunset provisions built in, which were originally set to expire on December 31, The sunset provision of the Act also took into account any ongoing foreign intelligence investigations and allowed them to continue once the sections had expired. Title III of the Act, titled "International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act of ," is intended to facilitate the prevention, detection, and prosecution of international money laundering and the financing of terrorism.
It was divided into three subtitles. The first subtitle deals primarily with strengthening banking rules against money laundering, especially on the international stage. The second subtitle attempts to improve communication between law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as expanding recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
The third subtitle deals with currency smuggling and counterfeiting, including quadrupling the maximum penalty for counterfeiting foreign currency. The first subtitle also tightened the recordkeeping requirements for financial institutions, making them record the aggregate amounts of transactions processed from areas of the world where money laundering is a concern to the U. It even made institutions put into place reasonable steps to identify beneficial owners of bank accounts and those who are authorized to use or route funds through payable-through accounts.
Department of Treasury was charged with formulating regulations intended to foster information sharing between financial institutions to prevent money-laundering. Similarly, mergers between insured depository institutions and non-insured depository institutions that have a bad track record in combating money-laundering could be blocked. Restrictions were placed on accounts and foreign banks. It prohibited shell banks that are not an affiliate of a bank that has a physical presence in the U. It also prohibits or restricts the use of certain accounts held at financial institutions. It is expected that additional scrutiny will be applied by the U. Banks must identify all the nominal and beneficial owners of any private bank account opened and maintained in the U.
There is also an expectation that they must undertake enhanced scrutiny of the account if it is owned by, or is being maintained on behalf of, any senior political figure where there is reasonable suspicion of corruption. Thus any restraining order , seizure warrant or arrest warrant may be made against the funds in the interbank account held at a U. Financial institutions are prohibited from allowing clients to specifically direct them to move funds into, out of, or through a concentration account, and they are also prohibited from informing their clients about the existence of such accounts.
Financial institutions are not allowed to provide any information to clients that may identify such internal accounts. The definition of money laundering was expanded to include making a financial transaction in the U. Attorney General  and the smuggling of any item controlled under the Export Administration Regulations. The Act also introduced criminal penalties for corrupt officialdom. An official or employee of the government who acts corruptly—as well as the person who induces the corrupt act—in the carrying out of their official duties will be fined by an amount that is not more than three times the monetary equivalent of the bribe in question.
Alternatively they may be imprisoned for not more than 15 years, or they may be fined and imprisoned. Penalties apply to financial institutions who do not comply with an order to terminate any corresponding accounts within 10 days of being so ordered by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Treasury. The second annotation made a number of modifications to the BSA in an attempt to make it harder for money launderers to operate and easier for law enforcement and regulatory agencies to police money laundering operations. One amendment made to the BSA was to allow the designated officer or agency who receives suspicious activity reports to notify U.
National reserve bank and allowing the Board to delegate this authority to U. Federal reserve bank. Executive Directors are now required to provide ongoing auditing of disbursements made from their institutions to ensure that no funds are paid to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism. The third subtitle deals with currency crimes. Largely because of the effectiveness of the BSA, money launders had been avoiding traditional financial institutions to launder money and were using cash-based businesses to avoid them.
A new effort was made to stop the laundering of money through bulk currency movements, mainly focusing on the confiscation of criminal proceeds and the increase in penalties for money laundering. Congress found that a criminal offense of merely evading the reporting of money transfers was insufficient and decided that it would be better if the smuggling of the bulk currency itself was the offense. The penalty for such an offense is up to 5 years' imprisonment and the forfeiture of any property up to the amount that was being smuggled.
Lakhani had tried to sell a missile to an FBI agent posing as a Somali militant. Penalties were increased to 20 years' imprisonment. Customs Service to improve technology for monitoring the Northern Border and acquiring additional equipment at the Canadian northern border. Department of State was required to form final regulations governing the procedures for taking fingerprints and the conditions with which the department was allowed to use this information.
Under Subtitle B, various definitions relating to terrorism were altered and expanded. The INA was retroactively amended to disallow aliens who are part of or representatives of a foreign organization or any group who endorses acts of terrorism from entering the U. This restriction also included the family of such aliens. Included in this definition is the gathering of intelligence information on potential terrorist targets, the solicitation of funds for a terrorist organization or the solicitation of others to undertake acts of terrorism.
Those who provide knowing assistance to a person who is planning to perform such activities are defined as undertaking terrorist activities. Such assistance includes affording material support, including a safe house , transportation, communications, funds, transfer of funds or other material financial benefit, false documentation or identification, weapons including chemical , biological , or radiological weapons , explosives, or training to perform the terrorist act.
The Act amended the INA to add new provisions enforcing mandatory detention laws. These apply to any alien who is engaged in terrorism, or who is engaged in an activity that endangers U. It also applies to those who are inadmissible or who must be deported because it is certified they are attempting to enter to undertake illegal espionage ; are exporting goods, technology, or sensitive information illegally; or are attempting to control or overthrow the government; or have, or will have, engaged in terrorist activities. The alien can be detained for up to 90 days but can be held up to six months after it is deemed that they are a national security threat.
However, the alien must be charged with a crime or removal proceedings start no longer than seven days after the alien's detention, otherwise the alien will be released. However, such detentions must be reviewed every six months by the Attorney General, who can then decide to revoke it, unless prevented from doing so by law. Every six months the alien may apply, in writing, for the certification to be reconsidered. Such proceedings can be initiated by an application filed with the United States Supreme Court , by any justice of the Supreme Court, by any circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit , or by any district court otherwise having jurisdiction to entertain the application.
A sense of Congress was given that the U. Secretary of State should expedite the full implementation of the integrated entry and exit data system for airports, seaports, and land border ports of entry specified in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of IIRIRA. They also found that the U. Congress wanted the primary focus of development of the entry-exit data system was to be on the utilization of biometric technology and the development of tamper-resistant documents readable at ports of entry.
They also wanted the system to be able to interface with existing law enforcement databases. The program was expanded to include other approved educational institutions, including air flight schools, language training schools or vocational schools that are approved by the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Education and the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State was ordered to audit and report back to Congress on the Visa waiver program specified under 8 U.
The Secretary was also ordered to check for the implementation of precautionary measures to prevent the counterfeiting and theft of passports as well as ascertain that countries designated under the visa waiver program have established a program to develop tamper-resistant passports. The last subtitle, which was introduced by Senators John Conyers and Patrick Leahy, allows for the preservation of immigration benefits for victims of terrorism, and the families of victims of terrorism.
Title V allows the U. State Department to offer rewards, in consultation with the Attorney General, for the full or significant dismantling of any terrorist organization  and to identify any key leaders of terrorist organizations. Thus, the act now allows federal officers who acquire information through electronic surveillance or physical searches to consult with federal law enforcement officers to coordinate efforts to investigate or protect against potential or actual attacks, sabotage or international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities by an intelligence service or network of a foreign power.
Secret Service jurisdiction was extended to investigate computer fraud, access device frauds, false identification documents or devices, or any fraudulent activities against U. Attorney General or Assistant Attorney General to collect and retain educational records relevant to an authorized investigation or prosecution of an offense that is defined as a Federal crime of terrorism and which an educational agency or institution possesses. The Attorney General or Assistant Attorney General must "certify that there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe that the education records are likely to contain information [that a Federal crime of terrorism may be being committed]. Department of Defense DoD. It is a demand letter issued to a particular entity or organization to turn over various records and data pertaining to individuals.
They require no probable cause or judicial oversight and also contain a gag order , preventing the recipient of the letter from disclosing that the letter was ever issued. Title V allowed the use of NSLs to be made by a Special Agent in charge of a Bureau field office, where previously only the director or the deputy assistant director of the FBI were able to certify such requests. Constitution because there is no way to legally oppose an NSL subpoena in court, and that it was unconstitutional not to allow a client to inform their Attorney as to the order because of the gag provision of the letters. The court's judgement found in favour of the ACLU's case, and they declared the law unconstitutional.
District Court struck down even the reauthorized NSLs because the gag power was unconstitutional as courts could still not engage in a meaningful judicial review of these gags. On August 28, , Judge Victor Marrero of the federal district court in Manhattan ruled the gag order of Nicholas Merrill was unjustified. In his decision, Judge Marrero described the FBI's position as, "extreme and overly broad," affirming that "courts cannot, consistent with the First Amendment, simply accept the Government's assertions that disclosure would implicate and create a risk. Merrill "implicates serious issues, both with respect to the First Amendment and accountability of the government to the people. The FBI was given 90 days to pursue any other alternative course of action but elected not to do so.
Upon release of the unredacted ruling on November 30, , it was revealed for the first time the extent to which the FBI's NSL accompanied by a gag order sought to collect information. Through the court documents, it was revealed for the first time that through an NSL, the FBI believes it can legally obtain information including an individual's complete web browsing history , the IP addresses of everyone a person has corresponded with, and all the records of all online purchases within the last days. This was the first time it was revealed the extent to which an NSL under the Patriot Act could request communication information.
Victims of Crime Fund was managed and funded, improving the speedy provision of aid to families of public safety officers by expedited payments to officers or the families of officers injured or killed in the line of duty. Payments must be made no later than 30 days later. A program can provide compensation to U. Means testing was also waived for those who apply for compensation. The funds could be used to provide emergency relief, including crisis response efforts, assistance, compensation, training and technical assistance for investigations and prosecutions of terrorism.
Title VII has one section. The purpose of this title is to increase the ability of U. It does this by amending the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of to include terrorism as a criminal activity. Title VIII alters the definitions of terrorism and establishes or re-defines rules with which to deal with it. It redefined the term "domestic terrorism" to broadly include mass destruction as well as assassination or kidnapping as a terrorist activity. The definition also encompasses activities that are "dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State" and are intended to "intimidate or coerce a civilian population," "influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion," or are undertaken "to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping" while in the jurisdiction of the United States.
New penalties were created to convict those who attack mass transportation systems. If the offender committed such an attack while no passenger was on board, they are fined and imprisoned for a maximum of 20 years. However, if the activity was undertaken while the mass transportation vehicle or ferry was carrying a passenger at the time of the offense, or the offense resulted in the death of any person, then the punishment is a fine and life imprisonment. A number of measures were introduced in an attempt to prevent and penalize activities that are deemed to support terrorism.
It was made a crime to harbor or conceal terrorists, and those who do are subject to a fine or imprisonment of up to 10 years, or both. Assets may also be seized if they have been acquired or maintained by an individual or organization for the purposes of further terrorist activities. Cyberterrorism was dealt with in various ways. Penalties apply to those who either damage or gain unauthorized access to a protected computer and then commit a number of offenses.
It also encompasses actions that cause a person to be injured, a threat to public health or safety, or damage to a governmental computer that is used as a tool to administer justice, national defense or national security. Also prohibited was extortion undertaken via a protected computer. The penalty for attempting to damage protected computers through the use of viruses or other software mechanism was set to imprisonment for up to 10 years, while the penalty for unauthorized access and subsequent damage to a protected computer was increased to more than five years' imprisonment.
However, should the offense occur a second time, the penalty increases up to 20 years' imprisonment. It directs the Attorney General to establish regional computer forensic laboratories that have the capability of performing forensic examinations of intercepted computer evidence relating to criminal activity and cyberterrorism, and that have the capability of training and educating Federal, State, and local law enforcement personnel and prosecutors in computer crime, and to "facilitate and promote the sharing of Federal law enforcement expertise and information about the investigation, analysis, and prosecution of computer-related crime with State and local law enforcement personnel and prosecutors, including the use of multijurisdictional task forces.
Attorney General to ensure that information derived from electronic surveillance or physical searches is disseminated for efficient and effective foreign intelligence purposes. Department of Justice. The U. Attorney General and Director of Central Intelligence both were directed to develop procedures for the Attorney General to follow in order to inform the director, in a timely manner, of any intention of investigating criminal activity of a foreign intelligence source or potential foreign intelligence source based on the intelligence tip-off of a member of the intelligence community. The Attorney General was also directed to develop procedures on how to best administer these matters. A number of reports were commissioned relating to various intelligence-related government centers.
One was commissioned into the best way of setting up the National Virtual Translation Center , with the goal of developing automated translation facilities to assist with the timely and accurate translation of foreign intelligence information for elements of the U. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence later complained that "[t]he Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of the Treasury failed to provide a report, this time in direct contravention of a section of the USA PATRIOT Act" and they further directed "that the statutorily-directed report be completed immediately, and that it should include a section describing the circumstances which led to the Director's failure to comply with lawful reporting requirements.
Other measures allowed certain reports on intelligence and intelligence-related matters to be deferred until at least February 1, , if the official involved certified that preparation and submission on February 1, , would impede the work of officers or employees engaged in counterterrorism activities. Any such deferral required congressional notification before it was authorized. The government officials include those in the Federal Government who do not normally encounter or disseminate foreign intelligence in the performance of their duties, and State and local government officials who encounter, or potentially may encounter in the course of a terrorist event, foreign intelligence in the performance of their duties.
Hazmat licenses were limited to drivers who pass background checks and who can demonstrate they can handle the materials. Opponents of the Act have been quite vocal in asserting that it was passed opportunistically after the September 11 attacks , believing that there would have been little debate. D-MI as saying, "We don't read most of the bills. Do you really know what that would entail if we read every bill that we passed? Moore was not the only commentator to notice that not many people had read the Act. Ashcroft and his roadies call the changes in law "modest and incremental. Both advocates and opponents are guilty of fear-mongering and distortion in some instances.
One prime example of how the Patriot Act has stirred controversy is the case of Susan Lindauer. Lindauer is a former Congressional staffer and antiwar activist who was charged under the Patriot Act with "acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign government," then ruled by a court mentally unfit to stand trial. Lindauer has emphatically denied both on many occasions, saying that she in fact had been a CIA agent serving as a link between the U. Another example of controversy in the Patriot Act is the court case United States v.
Antoine Jones. A nightclub owner was linked to a drug trafficking stash house via a law enforcement GPS tracking device attached to his car. It was placed there without a warrant, which caused a serious conviction obstacle for federal prosecutors in court. Through the years the case rose all the way to the U. Supreme Court , where the conviction was overturned. The court found that increased monitoring of suspects caused by such legislation like the Patriot Act violated the defendant's constitutional rights. The Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC has criticized the law as unconstitutional, especially when "the private communications of law-abiding American citizens might be intercepted incidentally",  while the Electronic Frontier Foundation held that the lower standard applied to wiretaps "gives the FBI a 'blank check' to violate the communications privacy of countless innocent Americans".
Professor David D. Cole of the Georgetown University Law Center , a critic of many of the provisions of the Act, found that though they come at a cost to privacy are a sensible measure  while Paul Rosenzweig, a Senior Legal Research Fellow in the Center for Legal and Judicial Studies at The Heritage Foundation , argues that roving wiretaps are just a response to rapidly changing communication technology that is not necessarily fixed to a specific location or device.
The Act also allows access to voicemail through a search warrant rather than through a title III wiretap order. However, the EFF's criticism is more extensive—they believe that the amendment "is in possible violation of the Fourth Amendment to the U. Constitution" because previously if the FBI listened to voicemail illegally, it could not use the messages in evidence against the defendant. Professor Orin Kerr , of the George Washington University school of law, believes that the ECPA "adopted a rather strange rule to regulate voicemail stored with service providers" because "under ECPA, if the government knew that there was one copy of an unopened private message in a person's bedroom and another copy on their remotely stored voicemail, it was illegal for the FBI to simply obtain the voicemail; the law actually compelled the police to invade the home and rifle through people's bedrooms so as not to disturb the more private voicemail.
The Patriot Act's expansion of court jurisdiction to allow the nationwide service of search warrants proved controversial for the EFF. However, supporters of the amendment, such as Heather Mac Donald , a fellow at the Manhattan Institute and contributing editor to the New York City Journal , expressed the belief that it was necessary because the temporary delay in notification of a search order stops terrorists from tipping off counterparts who are being investigated. In , FBI agents used this provision to search and secretly examine the home of Brandon Mayfield , who was wrongfully jailed for two weeks on suspicion of involvement in the Madrid train bombings.
While the U. Government did publicly apologize to Mayfield and his family,  Mayfield took it further through the courts. On September 26, , Judge Ann Aiken found the law was, in fact, unconstitutional as the search was an unreasonable imposition on Mayfield and thus violated the Fourth Amendment. Laws governing the material support of terrorism proved contentious. It was criticized by the EFF for infringement of freedom of association. They also used the example of a humanitarian social worker being unable to train Hamas members how to care for civilian children orphaned in the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians, a lawyer being unable to teach IRA members about international law , and peace workers being unable to offer training in effective peace negotiations or how to petition the United Nations regarding human rights abuses.
Another group, the Humanitarian Law Project , also objected to the provision prohibiting "expert advise and assistance" to terrorists and filed a suit against the U. In a Federal District Court struck the provision down as unconstitutionally vague,  but in the Supreme Court reversed that decision. Because they allow the FBI to search telephone, email, and financial records without a court order , they were criticized by many parties, including the American Civil Liberties Union.
Selected businesses included casinos, storage warehouses and car rental agencies. In April , they filed suit against the government on behalf of an unknown internet service provider who had been issued an NSL, for reasons unknown. In ACLU v. The court agreed, and found that because the recipient of the subpoena could not challenge it in court it was unconstitutional. Section allows the FBI to apply for an order to produce materials that assist in an investigation undertaken to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities.
Among the "tangible things" that could be targeted, it includes "books, records, papers, documents, and other items". Supporters of the provision point out that these records are held by third parties, and therefore are exempt from a citizen's reasonable expectations of privacy and also maintain that the FBI has not abused the provision. However, the American Library Association strongly objected to the provision, believing that library records are fundamentally different from ordinary business records, and that the provision would have a chilling effect on free speech.
They urged librarians to seek legal advice before complying with a search order and advised their members to only keeping records for as long as was legally needed. Consequently, reports started filtering in that librarians were shredding records to avoid having to comply with such orders. This case became known as Doe v. In May , the government finally gave up its legal battle to maintain the gag order. In a summary of the actions of the Connecticut Four and their challenge to the USA PATRIOT Act, Jones notes: "Librarians need to understand their country's legal balance between the protection of freedom of expression and the protection of national security.
Many librarians believe that the interests of national security, important as they are, have become an excuse for chilling the freedom to read. Our claim that we are attempting to build an international coalition against terrorism will be severely undermined if we pass legislation allowing even citizens of our allies to be incarcerated without basic U. Russell Feingold, in a Senate floor statement, claimed that the provision "falls short of meeting even basic constitutional standards of due process and fairness [as it] continues to allow the Attorney General to detain persons based on mere suspicion".
Worse, if the foreigner does not have a country that will accept them, they can be detained indefinitely without trial. Although the government of B. These amendments aim to place more firm limitations on "storing, accessing, and disclosing of B. The public sector establishments include an estimated 2, "government ministries, hospitals, boards of health, universities and colleges, school boards, municipal governments and certain Crown corporations and agencies. The goal of the act is to establish requirements to protect personal information from being revealed, as well as punishments for failing to do so. Justice Minister Murray Scott stated, "This legislation will help ensure that Nova Scotians' personal information will be protected. The act outlines the responsibilities of public bodies, municipalities and service providers and the consequences if these responsibilities are not fulfilled.
Sami Al-Arian was a Palestinian - American tenured computer engineering professor at the University of South Florida , who also actively promoted dialogue between the West and the Middle East, especially about the plight of Palestinians. A jury acquitted him on 8 counts and deadlocked on the remaining 9 counts. He later struck a plea bargain and admitted to one of the remaining charges in exchange for being released and deported by April It created new provisions relating to the death penalty for terrorists,  enhancing security at seaports ,  new measures to combat the financing of terrorism,  new powers for the Secret Service ,  anti- methamphetamine initiatives  and a number of other miscellaneous provisions.
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