✯✯✯ Gang Violence In Prisons
See also: List Gang Violence In Prisons gangs in the United Gang Violence In Prisons. Covid Freedom Index. Accountability and Justice The Gang Violence In Prisons continued against former military commanders accused in the El Mozote massacre, where soldiers committed mass Gang Violence In Prisons and killed Gang Violence In Prisons, including children. Southwest border region, as US-based gangs act as enforcers for Gang Violence In Prisons drug cartels. But it's Gang Violence In Prisons son who could potentially face punishment as schools attempt to comply with a recently Gang Violence In Prisons law Whole Foods Swot Analysis transgender bathroom use. West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming more However debate persists over the Gang Violence In Prisons and nature of gang activity in the UK, Gang Violence In Prisons  with some academics and policy-makers arguing that the current focus Why The Compromise Of 1850 Failed inadvisable, given a lack Gang Violence In Prisons consensus Reflective Essay About Leadership the relationship between gangs and crime.
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Covid Freedom Index. Home USA News. Get short URL. Follow RT on. Also on rt. Media News. These desires are very influential in attracting individuals to join gangs, and their influence is particularly strong on at-risk youth. Such individuals are often experiencing low levels of these various factors in their own lives, feeling ostracized from their community and lacking social support. Joining a gang may appear to them to be the only way to obtain status and success; they may feel that "if you can't beat 'em, join 'em". Upon joining a gang, they instantly gain a feeling of belonging and identity; they are surrounded with individuals whom they can relate to.
They have generally grown up in the same area as one another and can bond over similar needs. In some areas, joining a gang is an integrated part of the growing-up process. Gang membership is generally maintained by gangs as a lifetime commitment, reinforced through identification such as tattoos, and ensured through intimidation and coercion. Gang defectors are often subject to retaliation from the deserted gang.
Many gangs, including foreign and transnational gangs, hold that the only way to leave the gang is through death. This is sometimes informally called the "morgue rule". Gang membership represents the phenomenon of a chronic group criminal spin ; accordingly, the criminality of members is greater when they belong to the gang than when they are not in the gang—either before or after being in the gang. In addition, when together, the gang criminality as a whole is greater than that of its members when they are alone. Some states have a formal process to establish that a person is a member of a gang, called validation. Once a person is validated as a gang member, the person is subject to increased sentences, harsher punishments such as solitary confinement and more restrictive parole rules.
To validate a person as a gang member, the officials generally must provide evidence of several factors, such as tattoos, photographs, admissions, clothing, etc. The legal requirements for validating a person are much lower than the requirements for convicting of a crime. Women associated with gangs but who lack membership are typically categorized based on their relation to gang members. A survey of Mexican American gang members and associates defined these categories as girlfriends, hoodrats, good girls, and relatives. Gang members may engage in casual sex with these girls, but they are not viewed as potential long-term partners and are severely stigmatized by both men and women in gang culture.
These are fluid categories, and women often change status as they move between them. Valdez found that women with ties to gang members are often used to hold illegal weapons and drugs, typically, because members believe the girls are less likely to be searched by police for such items. Gangs are involved in all areas of street-crime activities like extortion , drug trafficking,  both in and outside the prison system, and theft. Gangs also victimize individuals by robbery and kidnapping. Often, gangs hire "lookouts" to warn members of upcoming law enforcement.
The dense environments of favelas in Rio and public housing projects in Chicago have helped gang members hide from police easily. Street gangs take over territory or "turf" in a particular city and are often involved in " providing protection ", often a thin cover for extortion, as the "protection" is usually from the gang itself, or in other criminal activity. Many gangs use fronts to demonstrate influence and gain revenue in a particular area. Gang violence refers mostly to the illegal and non-political acts of violence perpetrated by gangs against civilians, other gangs, law enforcement officers, firefighters, or military personnel. Modern gangs introduced new acts of violence, which may also function as a rite of passage for new gang members.
Southwest border region, as US-based gangs act as enforcers for Mexican drug cartels. Despite gangs usually formed in the community , not specifically in schools , gang violence can potentially affect schools in different ways including: . Global data on the prevalence of these different forms of gang violence in and around schools is limited. However, available evidence suggests that gang violence is more common in schools where students are exposed to other forms of community violence and where they fear violence at school. Children who grow up in neighbourhoods with high levels of crime has been identified as a risk factor for youth violence, including gang violence. Gang violence is often associated with carrying weapons , including in school.
According to a meta-analysis of 14 countries in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific also showed that carrying a weapon at school is associated with bullying victimization. Comparison of Global School-based Student Health Survey GSHS data on school violence and bullying for countries that are particularly affected by gang violence suggests that the links may be limited. In El Salvador and Guatemala, for example, where gang violence is a serious problem, GSHS data show that the prevalence of bullying, physical fights and physical attacks reported by school students is relatively low, and is similar to prevalence in other countries in Central America where gang violence is less prevalent.
Women in gang culture are often in environments where sexual assault is common and considered to be a norm. A girl who becomes intoxicated and flirts with men is often seen as "asking for it" and is written off as a "hoe" by men and women. Most modern research on gangs has focused on the thesis of class struggle following the work of Walter B. Miller and Irving Spergel. In this body of work The Gaylords are cited as the prime example of an American gang that is neither Black nor Hispanic.
Some researchers have focused on ethnic factors. Frederic Thrasher , who was a pioneer of gang research, identified "demoralization" as a standard characteristic of gangs. John Hagedorn has argued that this is one of three concepts that shed light on patterns of organization in oppressed racial, religious and ethnic groups the other two are Manuel Castells ' theory of "resistance identity and Derrick Bell 's work on the permanence of racism. Usually, gangs have gained the most control in poorer, urban communities and developing countries in response to unemployment and other services.
Ethnic solidarity is a common factor in gangs. Black and Hispanic gangs formed during the s in the USA often adapted nationalist rhetoric. Responding to an increasing black and Hispanic migration, a white gang formed called Chicago Gaylords. Most gang members have identifying characteristics which are unique to their specific clique or gang. Any disrespect of a gang member's color by an unaffiliated individual is regarded as grounds for violent retaliation, often by multiple members of the offended gang. Tattoos are also common identifiers,  such as an '18' above the eyebrow to identify a member of the 18th Street gang. Tattoos help a gang member gain respect within their group, and mark them as members for life.
Tattoos can also represent the level they are in the gang, being that certain tattoos can mean they are a more accomplished member. The accomplishments can be related to doing an dangerous act that showed your loyalty to the gang. They can be burned on as well as inked. Some gangs make use of more than one identifier, like the Nortenos , who wear red bandanas and have "14", "XIV", "x4", and "Norte" tattoos. Gangs often establish distinctive, characteristic identifiers including graffiti tags  colors , hand signals , clothing for example, the gangsta rap -type hoodies , jewelry, hair styles, fingernails, slogans,  signs such as the noose and the burning cross as the symbols of the Klan ,  flags  secret greetings, slurs , or code words and other group-specific symbols associated with the gang's common beliefs, rituals , and mythologies to define and differentiate themselves from other groups and gangs.
As an alternative language, hand-signals, symbols, and slurs in speech, graffiti , print, music, or other mediums communicate specific informational cues used to threaten, disparage, taunt , harass , intimidate , alarm, influence,  or exact specific responses including obedience, submission, fear, or terror. One study focused on terrorism and symbols states that "[s]ymbolism is important because it plays a part in impelling the terrorist to act and then in defining the targets of their actions. The Internet is one of the most significant media used by gangs to communicate in terms of the size of the audience they can reach with minimal effort and reduced risk.
Social media provides a forum for recruitment activities, typically provoking rival gangs through derogatory postings, and to glorify their gang and themselves. Researchers and activists in the United States have debated the true impact of US gangs on crime in the United States, with a episode of the You're Wrong About podcast claiming that the perceived increase in gang violence was in fact an overblown moral panic. Activists have also made the link between a perceived increase in gang activity and the sharp rise in US police budgets  while pointing out rampant corruption in police gang units, such as the Rampart scandal in the Los Angeles Police Force.
In the UK context , law enforcement agencies are increasingly focusing enforcement efforts on gangs and gang membership. However debate persists over the extent and nature of gang activity in the UK,   with some academics and policy-makers arguing that the current focus is inadvisable, given a lack of consensus over the relationship between gangs and crime. The Runnymede Trust suggests that, despite the well-rehearsed public discourse around youth gangs and "gang culture", "We actually know very little about 'gangs' in the UK: about how 'a gang' might be defined or understood, about what being in 'a gang' means We know still less about how 'the gang' links to levels of youth violence.
Professor Simon Hallsworth argues that, where they exist, gangs in the UK are "far more fluid, volatile and amorphous than the myth of the organized group with a corporate structure". Cottrell-Boyce, writing in the Youth Justice journal, argues that gangs have been constructed as a "suitable enemy" by politicians and the media, obscuring the wider, structural roots of youth violence. At the level of enforcement, a focus on gang membership may be counterproductive; creating confusion and resulting in a drag-net approach which can criminalise innocent young people rather than focusing resources on serious violent crime.
Gang members in uniform use their military knowledge, skills and weapons to commit and facilitate various crimes. As of April , the NGIC has identified members of at least 53 gangs whose members have served in or are affiliated with US military. In , Scott Barfield, a Defense Department investigator, said there is an online network of gangs and extremists: "They're communicating with each other about weapons, about recruiting, about keeping their identities secret, about organizing within the military. A Sun-Times article reports that gangs encourage members to enter the military to learn urban warfare techniques to teach other gang members.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gang leader. For other uses, see Gang disambiguation. Violent group of individuals. For the Sesame Street book, see Street Gang. For similar term, see criminal gang. For the Ice-T album, see Gang Culture album. See also: List of gangs in the United States. Main article: Gang signal. Main article: Gang presence in the United States military. Encyclopedia of the City. Online Etymology Dictionary. Social origins of dictatorship and democracy: Lord and peasant in the making of the modern world. Boston: Beacon Press. Gangsterism is likely to crop up wherever the forces of law and order are weak. European feudalism was mainly gangsterism that had become society itself and acquired respectability through the notions of chivalry.
As the rise of feudalism out of the decay of the Roman administrative system shows, this form of self-help which victimizes others is in principle opposed to the workings of a sound bureaucratic system. Gangs in America's Communities. ISBN Surrey Shores. SF Gate. Retrieved 30 December Sunday Mercury. A Brief History of Gangsters. Running Press January 6, Chapter 1: Lawlessness in the Old West.As the rise of feudalism out of the decay of the Roman administrative system shows, this form of self-help which victimizes others is in principle opposed to the workings of a sound bureaucratic system. Gang Violence In Prisons organized crime has also led Gang Violence In Prisons the creation of anti-gang groups, vigilante gangs, and autodefensaswho are groups who profess to be fighting against gang Gang Violence In Prisons, but share characteristics and acts similarly to a Gang Violence In Prisons. The structure of gangs Gang Violence In Prisons depending primarily on size, which can range from five or ten to thousands. El Salvador Gang Violence In Prisons widely regarded as the importance of business ethics place on Gang Violence In Prisons that is not a war zone, but it may as well Gang Violence In Prisons one. Journal Gang Violence In Prisons Politics in Persuasive Speech On Type 2 Diabetes America. As Gang Violence In Prisons September, at Gang Violence In Prisons 16 women suspected of having abortions remained imprisoned on charges Gang Violence In Prisons manslaughter, homicide, or aggravated homicide.